Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/124777
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Type: Journal article
Title: A GDSL esterase/lipase catalyzes the esterification of lutein in bread wheat
Author: Watkins, J.L.
Li, M.
McQuinn, R.P.
Chan, K.X.
McFarlane, H.E.
Ermakova, M.
Furbank, R.T.
Mares, D.J.
Dong, C.
Chalmers, K.J.
Sharp, P.
Mather, D.
Pogson, B.J.
Citation: Plant Cell, 2019; 31(12):3092-3112
Publisher: American Society of Plant Biologists
Issue Date: 2019
ISSN: 1040-4651
1532-298X
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Jacinta L. Watkins, Ming Li, Ryan P. McQuinn, Kai Xun Chan, Heather E. McFarlane, Maria Ermakova, Robert T Furbank, Daryl Mares, Chongmei Dong, Kenneth J. Chalmers, Peter Sharp, Diane E. Mather, and Barry J. Pogson
Abstract: Xanthophylls are a class of carotenoids that are important micronutrients for humans. They are often found esterified with fatty acids in fruits, vegetables and certain grains, including bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Esterification promotes the sequestration and accumulation of carotenoids, thereby enhancing stability, particularly in tissues such as in harvested wheat grain. Here, we report on a plant xanthophyll acyltransferase (XAT) that is both necessary and sufficient for xanthophyll esterification in bread wheat grain. XAT contains a canonical Gly-Asp-Ser-Leu (GDSL) motif and is encoded by a member of the GDSL esterase/lipase (GELP) gene family. Genetic evidence from allelic variants of wheat and transgenic rice calli demonstrated that XAT catalyzes the formation of xanthophyll esters. XAT has broad substrate specificity and can esterify lutein, β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin using multiple acyl-donors, yet it has a preference for triacylglycerides, indicating that the enzyme acts via transesterification. A conserved amino acid, Ser-37, is required for activity. Despite xanthophylls being synthesized in plastids, XAT accumulated in the apoplast. Based on analysis of substrate preferences and xanthophyll ester formation in vitro and in vivo using xanthophyll-accumulating rice callus, we propose that disintegration of the cellular structure during wheat grain desiccation facilitates access to lutein promoting transesterification.
Keywords: Plastids; Plants, Genetically Modified; Triticum; Esters; Carotenoids; Xanthophylls; Lutein; Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases; Triglycerides; Organ Specificity; Esterification; Alleles; Biocatalysis; Zeaxanthins; Oryza; Beta-Cryptoxanthin
Rights: © 2019 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.
RMID: 1000000762
DOI: 10.1105/tpc.19.00272
Grant ID: http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/CE140100008
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/CE1401000015
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DE170100054
Appears in Collections:Agriculture, Food and Wine publications

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