Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Scopus Web of Science® Altmetric
Type: Journal article
Title: Stereoselective anti-cancer activities of ginsenoside Rg3 on triple negative breast cancer cell models
Author: Nakhjavani, M.
Palethorpe, H.M.
Tomita, Y.
Smith, E.
Price, T.J.
Yool, A.J.
Pei, J.V.
Townsend, A.R.
Hardingham, J.E.
Citation: Pharmaceuticals, 2019; 12(3):117-1-117-14
Publisher: MDPI AG
Issue Date: 2019
ISSN: 1424-8247
Statement of
Maryam Nakhjavani, Helen M. Palethorpe, Yoko Tomita, Eric Smith, Timothy J. Price, Andrea J. Yool, Jinxin V. Pei, Amanda R. Townsend and Jennifer E. Hardingham
Abstract: Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) has two epimers, 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (SRg3) and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (RRg3), and while Rg3 itself has been reported to have anti-cancer properties, few studies have been reported on the anti-cancer effects of the different epimers. The aim was to investigate the stereoselective effects of the Rg3 epimers on triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines, tested using cell-based assays for proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, migration and invasion. Molecular docking showed that Rg3 interacted with the aquaporin 1 (AQP1) water channel (binding score -9.4 kJ mol⁻¹). The Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system was used to study the effect of Rg3 epimers on the AQP1 water permeability. The AQP1 expression in TNBC cell lines was compared with quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that only SRg3 inhibited the AQP1 water flux and inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 (100 μM), due to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1. SRg3 inhibited the chemoattractant-induced migration of MDA-MB-231. The AQP1 expression in MDA-MB-231 was higher than in HCC1143 or DU4475 cell lines. These results suggest a role for AQP1 in the proliferation and chemoattractant-induced migration of this cell line. Compared to SRg3, RRg3 had more potency and efficacy, inhibiting the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231. Rg3 has stereoselective anti-cancer effects in the AQP1 high-expressing cell line MDA-MB-231.
Keywords: Ginsenoside Rg3
breast cancer
triple negative breast cancer
Description: Published: 1 August 2019
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
DOI: 10.3390/ph12030117
Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest 4
Surgery publications

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
hdl_125014.pdfPublished version955.2 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.