Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/2440/12551
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Type: Journal article
Title: Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere
Author: Hedin, A.
Fleming, E.
Manson, A.
Schmidlin, F.
Avery, S.
Clark, R.
Franke, S.
Fraser, G.
Tsuda, T.
Vial, F.
Vincent, R.
Citation: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar: Terrestrial Physics, 1996; 58(13):1421-1447
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 1996
ISSN: 0021-9169
Statement of
Responsibility: 
A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial and R. A. Vincent H
Abstract: The HWM90 thermospheric wind model has been revised in the lower thermosphere and extended into the mesosphere, stratosphere and lower atmosphere to provide a single analytic model for calculating zonal and meridional wind profiles representative of the climatological average for various geophysical conditions. Gradient winds from CIRA-86 plus rocket soundings, incoherent scatter radar, MF radar, and meteor radar provide the data base and are supplemented by previous data driven model summaries. Low-order spherical harmonics and Fourier series are used to describe the major variations throughout the atmosphere including latitude, annual, semiannual, local time (tides), and longitude (stationary wave 1), with a cubic spline interpolation in altitude. The model represents a smoothed compromise between the original data sources. Although agreement between various data sources is generally good, some systematic differences are noted, particularly near the mesopause. Overall root mean square differences between data and model values arc on the order of 10 m/s in the mesosphere and 10 m/s in the stratosphere for zonal winds, and 10 m/s and 5 m/s respectively for meridional winds. Copyright © 1996 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
Rights: Copyright © 1996 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
DOI: 10.1016/0021-9169(95)00122-0
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