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Type: Journal article
Title: Understanding skin absorption of common aldehyde vapours from exposure during hazardous material incidents
Author: Thredgold, L.
Gaskin, S.
Heath, L.
Pisaniello, D.
Logan, M.
Baxter, C.
Citation: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 2019; 30(3):537-546
Publisher: Springer Nature
Issue Date: 2019
ISSN: 1559-0631
Statement of
Leigh Thredgold, Sharyn Gaskin, Linda Heath, Dino Pisaniello, Michael Logan, Christina Baxter
Abstract: The toxic release of aldehyde vapours during a hazardous material (HAZMAT) incident primarily results in respiratory concerns for the unprotected public. However, skin absorption may be an important concurrent exposure route that is poorly understood for this scenario. This study provides experimental data on the skin absorption properties of common aldehydes used in industry, including acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzaldehyde and formaldehyde, in gaseous or vapour form using an adapted in vitro technique. Two of the four tested aldehydes were found to penetrate the skin in appreciable amounts following 30-min exposure at HAZMAT relevant atmospheric concentrations: acetaldehyde (5.29 ± 3.24 μg/cm²) and formaldehyde (3.45 ± 2.58 μg/cm²). Whereas only low levels of acrolein (0.480 ± 0.417 μg/cm²) and benzaldehyde (1.46 ± 0.393 μg/cm²) skin penetration was noted. The aldehydes demonstrated differing levels of interaction with fabric. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde adsorbed strongly to denim, whereas benzaldehyde and acrolein displayed no sink properties. However, denim was shown to be an initial protective barrier and reduced penetration outcomes for all aldehydes. This study provides important information to assist first responders and confirms the relevance of using physicochemical properties (e.g. solubility, molecular weight, partition coefficient) to predict skin permeation potential in the absence of empirical data during HAZMAT incidents involving different types of aldehydes.
Keywords: Dermal exposure; Aldehydes; Vapour; In vitro; HAZMAT
Description: Published online: 15 February 2019
Rights: © Springer Nature America, Inc. 2019
DOI: 10.1038/s41370-019-0127-4
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