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dc.contributor.authorThredgold, L.en
dc.contributor.authorGaskin, S.en
dc.contributor.authorHeath, L.en
dc.contributor.authorPisaniello, D.en
dc.contributor.authorLogan, M.en
dc.contributor.authorBaxter, C.en
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 2019; 30(3):537-546en
dc.descriptionPublished online: 15 February 2019en
dc.description.abstractThe toxic release of aldehyde vapours during a hazardous material (HAZMAT) incident primarily results in respiratory concerns for the unprotected public. However, skin absorption may be an important concurrent exposure route that is poorly understood for this scenario. This study provides experimental data on the skin absorption properties of common aldehydes used in industry, including acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzaldehyde and formaldehyde, in gaseous or vapour form using an adapted in vitro technique. Two of the four tested aldehydes were found to penetrate the skin in appreciable amounts following 30-min exposure at HAZMAT relevant atmospheric concentrations: acetaldehyde (5.29 ± 3.24 μg/cm²) and formaldehyde (3.45 ± 2.58 μg/cm²). Whereas only low levels of acrolein (0.480 ± 0.417 μg/cm²) and benzaldehyde (1.46 ± 0.393 μg/cm²) skin penetration was noted. The aldehydes demonstrated differing levels of interaction with fabric. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde adsorbed strongly to denim, whereas benzaldehyde and acrolein displayed no sink properties. However, denim was shown to be an initial protective barrier and reduced penetration outcomes for all aldehydes. This study provides important information to assist first responders and confirms the relevance of using physicochemical properties (e.g. solubility, molecular weight, partition coefficient) to predict skin permeation potential in the absence of empirical data during HAZMAT incidents involving different types of aldehydes.en
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityLeigh Thredgold, Sharyn Gaskin, Linda Heath, Dino Pisaniello, Michael Logan, Christina Baxteren
dc.publisherSpringer Natureen
dc.rights© Springer Nature America, Inc. 2019en
dc.subjectDermal exposure; Aldehydes; Vapour; In vitro; HAZMATen
dc.titleUnderstanding skin absorption of common aldehyde vapours from exposure during hazardous material incidentsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
pubs.library.collectionPublic Health publicationsen
dc.identifier.orcidThredgold, L. [0000-0003-1564-4047]en
dc.identifier.orcidGaskin, S. [0000-0002-1507-6425]en
dc.identifier.orcidPisaniello, D. [0000-0002-4156-0608]en
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