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Type: Journal article
Title: Evaluation of the utility of teaching joint relocations using cadaveric specimens
Author: Au, J.
Palmer, E.
Johnson, I.
Chehade, M.
Citation: BMC Medical Education, 2018; 18(1):41-1-41-9
Publisher: BioMed Central
Issue Date: 2018
ISSN: 1472-6920
Statement of
John Au, Edward Palmer, Ian Johnson and Mellick Chehade
Abstract: Background: Like other procedural skills, the ability to relocate a joint is an important aspect of junior doctor education. Changes in the approach to teaching and learning from the traditional apprenticeship-style model have made the teaching of practical skills more difficult logistically. Workshops utilising cadaveric specimens offer a solution to this problem. Methods: One hundred forty-six fourth year medical students were randomly divided into 5 groups. Each group received a different teaching intervention based on ankle, patella and hip relocation. The interventions consisted of online learning modules, instructional cards and workshops using skeleton models and cadaveric dislocation models. Following the intervention students were given a test containing multiple choice and true/false style questions. A 13-item 5-point Likert scale questionnaire was also delivered before and after the intervention. The data was analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Results: Compared to the instructional cards group, the other 4 groups showed a 10.8–19.2% improvement in total test score (p < 0.01) and an 18.4–25.3% improvement in self-reported understanding and confidence in performing joint relocations (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in total test scores between groups exposed to cadaveric instruction on the relocation of one-, two- or all three- joints, nor any significant difference between all the cadaveric dislocation groups and the group receiving instruction on the skeleton model. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that workshops utilising cadaveric dislocation models are effective in teaching joint relocation. In addition, the finding that lower fidelity models may be of equal utility may provide institutions with flexibility of delivery needed to meet financial and resource constraints.
Keywords: Cadaver; Medical student; Education; Online learning; Joint dislocation; Joint relocation
Description: Published online: 20 March 2018
Rights: © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
RMID: 0030084323
DOI: 10.1186/s12909-018-1151-0
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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