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Type: Journal article
Title: A multicenter case control study of association of vitamin D with breast cancer among women in Karachi, Pakistan
Author: Shamsi, U.
Khan, S.
Azam, I.
Habib Khan, A.
Maqbool, A.
Hanif, M.
Gill, T.
Iqbal, R.
Callen, D.
Citation: PLoS One, 2020; 15(1):e0225402-e0225402
Publisher: Plos One
Issue Date: 2020
ISSN: 1932-6203
Editor: Moran, J.M.
Statement of
Uzma Shamsi, Shaista Khan, Iqbal Azam, Aysha Habib Khan ... Tiffany Gill ... David Callen ... et al.
Abstract: BACKGROUND:The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and breast cancer are both high among women living in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS:A matched case control study was conducted in two hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan to evaluate the association of vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) concentrations, vitamin D supplementation and sun exposure with breast cancer among Pakistani women. A total of 411 newly diagnosed histologically confirmed primary breast cancer cases were enrolled and 784 controls, free of breast and any other cancers, were matched by age (year of birth ± 5 years), residence in the same geographic area and study site. Information was collected on sociodemographic history, history of vitamin D supplementation, past medical and obstetrical history, family history of breast cancer, sun exposure history, histopathology reports and anthropometric measurement and venous blood was collected to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. RESULTS:Compared to patients with sufficient serum vitamin D (>30 ng/ml), women with serum vitamin D deficiency (<20ng/ml), had a higher risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.65, 95%CI: 1.10, 2.50). Women with history of vitamin D supplementation one year prior to enrollment, had significant protective effect against breast cancer (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.43). CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION:Serum vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of breast cancer, while vitamin D supplementation was associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. In Pakistani women, where vitamin D deficiency is common, raising and maintaining serum vitamin D at population level is a safe and affordable strategy. It may play a role in reducing the incidence of both vitamin D deficiency and breast cancer, particularly among poor women where the breast cancer mortality is highest due to limited resources for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment. The effects of vitamin D with regard to breast cancer risk in Karachi Pakistan should be further evaluated.
Keywords: Humans
Breast Neoplasms
Vitamin D Deficiency
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Vitamin D
Case-Control Studies
Dietary Supplements
Middle Aged
Rights: © 2020 Shamsi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225402
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