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Type: Journal article
Title: Cultural adaptation of the mental health first aid guidelines for depression used in English-speaking countries for China: a Delphi expert consensus study
Author: Lu, S.
Li, W.
Oldenburg, B.
Wang, Y.
Jorm, A.F.
He, Y.
Reavley, N.J.
Citation: BMC Psychiatry, 2020; 20(1):336-336
Publisher: Springer
Issue Date: 2020
ISSN: 1471-244X
Statement of
Shurong Lu, Wenjing Li, Brian Oldenburg, Yan Wang, Anthony F. Jorm, Yanling He and Nicola J. Reavley
Abstract: Background: Most people who meet the criteria for a diagnosis of depression in China do not receive treatment. Family and friends can play a role in recognising the signs of depression and encouraging the person to seek treatment. However, many of them may lack the knowledge and skills to offer such help. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt the existing English-language mental health first aid (MHFA) guidelines for helping a person with depression to the Chinese context. Methods: A Delphi expert consensus study was conducted, in which two Chinese expert panels of mental health professionals (with experience in the field of clinical management of depression, n = 37) and consumers and carers (with lived experience, n = 30) rated the importance of actions that could be taken to help a person experiencing depression in mainland China. Results: Data were collected over 3 survey rounds. In the 1st round questionnaire, 175 statements translated into Chinese from the English-language guidelines were presented to the expert panels and 12 new statements were generated from panellists’ comments. Of these 187 statements, 173 were endorsed for inclusion in the adapted guidelines for China. Conclusions: Although the adapted guidelines were still quite similar to the guidelines for English-speaking countries, they also incorporated some new actions for the Chinese context, including those relating to different ways of respecting the autonomy of a person with depression and the role of their families. Further research is needed to explore the use of these guidelines by the Chinese public, including how they may be incorporated in Mental Health First Aid training.
Keywords: Depression; Mental Health First Aid (MHFA); cultural adaptation; Delphi study; China
Rights: © 2020, Springer Nature. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
DOI: 10.1186/s12888-020-02736-4
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Psychology publications

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