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Type: Journal article
Title: Transcriptional and biochemical analyses of gibberellin expression and content in germinated barley grain
Author: Betts, N.S.
Dockter, C.
Berkowitz, O.
Collins, H.M.
Hooi, M.
Lu, Q.
Burton, R.A.
Bulone, V.
Skadhauge, B.
Whelan, J.
Fincher, G.B.
Citation: Journal of Experimental Botany, 2020; 71(6):1870-1884
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Issue Date: 2020
ISSN: 0022-0957
Statement of
Natalie S. Betts, Christoph Dockter, Oliver Berkowitz, Helen M. Collins, Michelle Hooi, Qiongxian Lu, Rachel A. Burton, Vincent Bulone, Birgitte Skadhauge, James Whelan, and Geoffrey B. Fincher
Abstract: Mobilization of reserves in germinated cereal grains is critical for early seedling vigour, global crop productivity and hence food security. Gibberellins (GAs) are central to this process. We have developed a spatio-temporal model that describes the multifaceted mechanisms of GA regulation in germinated barley grain. The model was generated using RNA-seq transcript data from tissues dissected from intact, germinated grain, which closely match measurements of GA hormones and their metabolites in those tissues. The data show that successful grain germination is underpinned by high concentrations of GA precursors in ungerminated grain, the use of independent metabolic pathways for the synthesis of several bioactive GAs during germination, and a capacity to abort bioactive GA biosynthesis. The most abundant bioactive form is GA₁, which is synthesized in the scutellum as a glycosyl conjugate that diffuses to the aleurone, where it stimulates de novo synthesis of a GA₃ conjugate and GA₄. Synthesis of bioactive GAs in the aleurone provides a mechanism that ensures the hormonal signal is relayed from the scutellum to the distal tip of the grain. The transcript dataset of 33,421 genes used to define GA metabolism is available as a resource to analyse other physiological processes in germinated grain.
Keywords: Aleurone; germination; gibberellic acid; Hordeum vulgare; RNA-seq; scutellum; signal transduction
Rights: © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erz546
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Appears in Collections:Agriculture, Food and Wine publications
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