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Type: Journal article
Title: ENIGMA MDD: seven years of global neuroimaging studies of major depression through worldwide data sharing
Author: Schmaal, L.
Pozzi, E.
C Ho, T.
van Velzen, L.S.
Veer, I.M.
Opel, N.
Van Someren, E.J.W.
Han, L.K.M.
Aftanas, L.
Aleman, A.
Baune, B.T.
Berger, K.
Blanken, T.F.
Capitão, L.
Couvy-Duchesne, B.
R Cullen, K.
Dannlowski, U.
Davey, C.
Erwin-Grabner, T.
Evans, J.
et al.
Citation: Translational Psychiatry, 2020; 10(1):172-1-172-19
Publisher: Nature Research
Issue Date: 2020
ISSN: 2158-3188
Statement of
Lianne Schmaal ... Bernhard T. Baune ... et al.
Abstract: A key objective in the field of translational psychiatry over the past few decades has been to identify the brain correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD). Identifying measurable indicators of brain processes associated with MDD could facilitate the detection of individuals at risk, and the development of novel treatments, the monitoring of treatment effects, and predicting who might benefit most from treatments that target specific brain mechanisms. However, despite intensive neuroimaging research towards this effort, underpowered studies and a lack of reproducible findings have hindered progress. Here, we discuss the work of the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Consortium, which was established to address issues of poor replication, unreliable results, and overestimation of effect sizes in previous studies. The ENIGMA MDD Consortium currently includes data from 45 MDD study cohorts from 14 countries across six continents. The primary aim of ENIGMA MDD is to identify structural and functional brain alterations associated with MDD that can be reliably detected and replicated across cohorts worldwide. A secondary goal is to investigate how demographic, genetic, clinical, psychological, and environmental factors affect these associations. In this review, we summarize findings of the ENIGMA MDD disease working group to date and discuss future directions. We also highlight the challenges and benefits of large-scale data sharing for mental health research.
Rights: © The Author(s) 2020. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
RMID: 1000022096
DOI: 10.1038/s41398-020-0842-6
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