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|Scopus||Web of Science®||Altmetric|
|Title:||Oxygen exposure during red wine fermentation modifies tannin reactivity with poly-L-proline|
|Citation:||Food Chemistry, 2019; 297:124923-1-124923-7|
|Aude A. Watrelot, Martin P. Day, Alex Schulkin, Robert J. Falconer, Paul Smith, Andrew L. Waterhouse, Keren A. Bindon|
|Abstract:||Red wines injected with nitrogen or oxygen during fermentation were used to identify the effect of gas exposure on tannin structure and reactivity with poly-l-proline. Tannin was purified from wine after fermentation and after three years of bottle storage. Tannin from nitrogen-treated wine had a lower percentage of galloylation and were less pigmented than tannin from oxygen-exposed wine. Self-aggregation of tannin was measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis and a larger particle size was observed for the oxidized treatment. The interaction of tannin and poly-l-proline was measured by isothermal titration calorimetry, and involved more hydrogen bonding than hydrophobic interactions in the case of nitrogen-treated wine tannin. Conversely, oxidized tannin was more hydrophobic and the association with poly-l-proline was entropy-driven due to a change of solvation. The results show meaningful changes in the structure and reactivity of tannin as a result of oxygen exposure during fermentation, which may impact astringency perception.|
|Keywords:||Proanthocyanidins; oxidation; particle size; thermodynamic parameters; ITC; NTA|
|Rights:||© 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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