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Type: Thesis
Title: The ecology of oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta) (Busck) in relation to other pests of canning peaches in Southern Australia
Author: Richardson, Noel Lewis
Issue Date: 1971
School/Discipline: Dept. of Zoology
Abstract: The present contribution describes a method for the control of all pests occurring in peach orchards in South Australia. The method is more effective and cheaper to implement than the alternatives in current use. It does not interfere with existing practices of orchard management. The arthropod fauna of peach orchards is divided into groups according to their status as pests, and their functional qualities. The Oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck); Two spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch); San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comst); and Green peach aphis, Myzus persicae (Sulz); are the major pests. The most important predaceous species include the transverse ladybird, Coccinella repanda; the green lacewing, Chrysopa ramburi; the brown lacewing, Micromus tasmaniae; the hover fly Eristalis tenax (associated with M. persicae); and an undescribed coccinellid, Stethorus sp. (associated with T. urticae). Methods for the control of each of the pest species are described. An attempt is made to encourage and exploit the beneficial fauna associated with each past by adopting control procedures that are ecologically specific. C. molesta is the most important pest in the peach orchard ecosystem. Its presence not only causes direct losses, but the insecticides applied to the trees for its control induce an economic problem with the phytophagous mite, T Urticae. A new method for the control of. C. molesta is described. It is based on the control of the adults as they emerge in spring. The surviving population does not increase sufficiently during summer to cause significant losses of fruit during harvest. The spring emergence of C. molesta occurs before the majority of the predaceous species become active. By using non-persistent insecticides for the control of C. molesta, toxic residues do not remain to affect the beneficial fauna. The method is thus ecologically selective. Predaceous species become more numerous, and within a relatively short period, lower the population of their respective hosts to densities at which economic losses are not incurred. A previously undescribed species of Stethorus sp. occurs naturally and is a very efficient predator of T. urticae. It attacks all stages of its host and is capable of maintaining mite populations at levels where they are no longer an economic pest. Natural balance is achieved in two seasons if persistent broad-spectrum insecticides are avoided during summer. "Pest management” is a practical method of pest suppression in peach orchards. It has ecological as well as economic advantages. The only disadvantage associated with its acceptance commercially is that it requires ' supervision by an entomologist with a basic training in ecology.
Advisor: Andrewartha, H.G.
Dissertation Note: Thesis (M.Sc.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Zoology, 1972.
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