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Type: Journal article
Title: Highly radiating hydrogen flames: Effect of toluene concentration and phase
Author: Evans, M.J.
Proud, D.B.
Medwell, P.R.
Pitsch, H.
Dally, B.B.
Citation: Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 2021; 38(1):1099-1106
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 2021
ISSN: 1540-7489
Statement of
Michael J. Evans, Douglas B. Proud, Paul R. Medwell, Heinz Pitsch, Bassam B. Dally
Abstract: Adapting hydrogen as a carbon-free fuel for industrial applications requires new, innovative approaches, especially when radiant heat transfer is required. One possible option is to dope hydrogen with bio-oils, containing aromatics that help produce highly sooting flames. This study investigates the potential doping effects of toluene on a hydrogen-nitrogen (1:1 vol) flames. Flames with 1–5% toluene, based on the mole concentration of hydrogen, are measured using a combination of techniques including: still photographs and laser-based techniques. Toluene was mixed with hydrogen-nitrogen fuel mixture as either a vapour carried by nitrogen, or as a dilute spray. Spray flames are found to produce substantially more polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons, with significantly more soot near the nozzle exit plane, than the prevaporised flames. Increasing the dopant concentration from 1 to 3% of the hydrogen has a marked effect on soot loading in the flame, although the further increasing the dopant concentration to 5% has a far smaller effect on the soot produced in the flame. Simulations of laminar flames using detailed chemical kinetics support the above findings and reveal details of the competition between soot precursor formation and hydrocarbon oxidation. Correlations of formation rates are non-linear with toluene concentration in cases where toluene represents less than 10% of the fuel, although expected linear relationships are noted beyond this regime up to 1:1 toluene/hydrogen blends. The study provides insight and explanation into effects of toluene as a dopant, comparison between flame doping in gaseous or liquid phases and suggests that flame doping and blending should be treated as different regimes for their global effect on flame sooting characteristics.
Keywords: Hydrogen; Toluene; Dual-fuel; Fuel dopants; Spray flamess
Description: Available online 13 August 2020
Rights: © 2020 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DOI: 10.1016/j.proci.2020.07.005
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Mechanical Engineering publications

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