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|Title:||Xylomelum occidentale (Proteaceae) accesses relatively mobile soil organic phosphorus without releasing carboxylates|
|Citation:||Journal of Ecology, 2021; 109(1):246-259|
|Publisher:||British Ecological Society; Wiley|
|Hongtao Zhong, Jun Zhou, Azrul Azmi, André J. Arruda, Ashlea L. Doolette, Ronald J. Smernik, Hans Lambers|
|Abstract:||1. Hundreds of Proteaceae species in Australia and South Africa typically grow on phosphorus (P)-impoverished soils, exhibiting a carboxylate-releasing P-mobilizing strategy. In the Southwest Australian Biodiversity Hotspot, two Xylomelum (Proteaceae) species are widely distributed, but restricted within that distribution. 2. We grew Xylomelum occidentale in hydroponics at 1 μM P. Leaves, seeds, rhizosheath and bulk soil were collected in natural habitats. 3. Xylomelum occidentale did not produce functional cluster roots and occupied soils that are somewhat less P-impoverished than those in typical Proteaceae habitats in the region. Based on measurements of foliar manganese concentrations (a proxy for rhizosphere carboxylate concentrations) and P fractions in bulk and rhizosheath soil, we conclude that X. occidentale accesses organic P, without releasing carboxylates. Solution 31P-NMR spectroscopy revealed which organic P forms X. occidentale accessed. 4. Xylomelum occidentale uses a strategy that differs fundamentally from that t ypical in Proteaceae, accessing soil organic P without carboxylates. We surmise that this novel strategy is likely expressed also in co-occurring non-Proteaceae that lack a carboxylate- exuding strategy. These co-occurring species are unlikely to benefit from mycorrhizal associations, because plant-available soil P concentrations are too low. 5. Synthesis. Our findings show the first field evidence of effectively utilizing soil organic P by X. occidentale without carboxylate exudation and explain their relatively restricted distribution in an old P-impoverished landscape, contributing to a better understanding of how diverse P-acquisition strategies coexist in a megadiverse ecosystem.|
|Keywords:||Carboxylates; ecophysiology; manganese; phosphatases; Proteaceae; soil organic P; solution ³¹P-NMR; Xylomelum|
|Rights:||2020 British Ecological Society|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
Aurora harvest 8
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