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Type: Journal article
Title: Nutritional adequacy of very low- and high-carbohydrate, low saturated fat diets in adults with type 2 diabetes: a secondary analysis of a 2-year randomised controlled trial
Author: Tay, J.
Thompson, C.H.
Luscombe-Marsh, N.D.
Noakes, M.
Buckley, J.D.
Wittert, G.A.
Brinkworth, G.D.
Citation: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2020; 170:1-12
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 2020
ISSN: 0168-8227
Statement of
Jeannie Tay, Campbell H. Thompson, Natalie D. Luscombe-Marsh, Manny Noakes, Jonathan D. Buckley, Gary A. Wittert, Grant D. Brinkworth
Abstract: Background: Growing evidence supports use of very low-carbohydrate (LC) diets for glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. However, limited data on the micronutrient adequacy of LC diets exist. Objective: This study compared the long-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate, high unsaturated/low saturated fat (LC) diet to a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on micronutrient biomarkers in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Methods: 115 adults with type 2 diabetes (mean[SD]; BMI:34.6[4.3]kg/m², age:58[7]yrs, HbA1c:7.3[1.1]%, 56[12]mmol/mol) were randomized to one of two planned, nutritionally-replete, energy-matched, hypocaloric diets (500-1000kcal/day deficit): (1) LC:14% energy carbohydrate, 28%protein, 58%fat[<10% saturated fat]) or (2) HC:53%carbohydrate, 17%protein, 30%fat [<10%saturated fat]) for 2 years. Nutritional biomarkers- folate, β-carotene, vitamin B12, D, E, copper, zinc, selenium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, ferritin, transferrin and transferrin saturation were measured in fasting blood at baseline, 24, 52 and 104 weeks. Results: 61 participants completed the study with similar dropouts in each group (P=0.40). For all biomarkers assessed, there were no differential response between groups overtime (P≥0.17 time x diet interaction). Mean vitamin and mineral levels remained within normal (laboratory-specific) reference ranges without any reported cases of clinical deficiencies. Conclusion: In free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes, nutrition biomarkers within normal ranges at baseline did not change significantly after 2 years on a prescribed LC or HC diet. These results demonstrate the feasibility of delivering a nutritionally replete LC diet and the importance of considering nutritional factors in planning LC diets that have strong public health relevance to the dietary management of type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: Diet; low-carbohydrate; nutritional adequacy; type 2 diabetes; weight loss
Rights: © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108501
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