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Type: Journal article
Title: Methods used and application of the mouse grimace scale in biomedical research 10 years on: a scoping review
Author: Whittaker, A.
Liu, Y.
Barker, T.
Citation: Animals, 2021; 11(3):1-27
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2021
ISSN: 2076-2615
Statement of
Alexandra L. Whittaker, Yifan Liu and Timothy H. Barker
Abstract: The Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS) was developed 10 years ago as a method for assessing pain through the characterisation of changes in five facial features or action units. The strength of the technique is that it is proposed to be a measure of spontaneous or non‐evoked pain. The time is opportune to map all of the research into the MGS, with a particular focus on the methods used and the technique’s utility across a range of mouse models. A comprehensive scoping review of the academic literature was performed. A total of 48 articles met our inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The MGS has been employed mainly in the evaluation of acute pain, particularly in the pain and neuroscience research fields. There has, however, been use of the technique in a wide range of fields, and based on limited study it does appear to have utility for pain assessment across a spectrum of animal models. Use of the method allows the detection of pain of a longer duration, up to a month post initial insult. There has been less use of the technique using real‐time methods and this is an area in need of further research.
Keywords: Mouse grimace scale; pain; validity; methods; reliability
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4.0/).
DOI: 10.3390/ani11030673
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Appears in Collections:Animal and Veterinary Sciences publications
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