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Type: Journal article
Title: Adjuvant selection for influenza and RSV prefusion subunit vaccines
Author: Isaacs, A.
Li, Z.
Cheung, S.T.M.
Wijesundara, D.K.
McMillan, C.L.D.
Modhiran, N.
Young, P.R.
Ranasinghe, C.
Watterson, D.
Chappell, K.J.
Citation: Vaccines, 2021; 9(2):1-14
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2021
ISSN: 2076-393X
Statement of
Ariel Isaacs, Zheyi Li, Stacey T. M. Cheung, Danushka K. Wijesundara, Christopher L. D. McMillan, Naphak Modhiran al.
Abstract: Subunit vaccines exhibit favorable safety and immunogenicity profiles and can be designed to mimic native antigen structures. However, pairing with an appropriate adjuvant is imperative in order to elicit effective humoral and cellular immune responses. In this study, we aimed to determine an optimal adjuvant pairing with the prefusion form of influenza haemagglutinin (HA) or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) subunit vaccines in BALB/c mice in order to inform future subunit vaccine adjuvant selection. We tested a panel of adjuvants, including aluminum hydroxide (alhydrogel), QS21, Addavax, Addavax with QS21 (AdQS21), and Army Liposome Formulation 55 with monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21 (ALF55). We found that all adjuvants elicited robust humoral responses in comparison to placebo, with the induction of potent neutralizing antibodies observed in all adjuvanted groups against influenza and in AdQS21, alhydrogel, and ALF55 against RSV. Upon HA vaccination, we observed that none of the adjuvants were able to significantly increase the frequency of CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD8<sup>+</sup> IFN-γ<sup>+</sup> cells when compared to unadjuvanted antigen. The varying responses to antigens with each adjuvant highlights that those adjuvants most suited for pairing purposes can vary depending on the antigen used and/or the desired immune response. We therefore suggest that an adjuvant trial for different subunit vaccines in development would likely be necessary in preclinical studies.
Keywords: RSV
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).
DOI: 10.3390/vaccines9020071
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Microbiology and Immunology publications

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