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Type: Journal article
Title: Associations between diet, the gut microbiome and short chain fatty acids in youth with islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes
Author: Harbison, J.E.
Thomson, R.L.
Wentworth, J.M.
Louise, J.
Roth‐Schulze, A.
Battersby, R.J.
Ngui, K.M.
Penno, M.A.S.
Colman, P.G.
Craig, M.E.
Barry, S.C.
Tran, C.D.
Makrides, M.
Harrison, L.C.
Couper, J.J.
Citation: Pediatric Diabetes, 2021; 22(3):425-433
Publisher: Wiley
Issue Date: 2021
ISSN: 1399-543X
Statement of
Jessica E. Harbison, Rebecca L. Thomson, John M. Wentworth, Jennie Louise, Alexandra Roth-Schulze, Rachel J. Battersby ... et al.
Abstract: Aim: We aimed to characterize associations between diet and the gut microbiome and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) products in youth with islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes (IA/T1D) in comparison with controls. Research design and methods: Eighty participants (25 diagnosed with T1D, 17 with confirmed IA, 38 sibling or unrelated controls) from the Australian T1D Gut Study cohort were studied (median [IQR] age 11.7 [8.9, 14.0] years, 43% female). A Food Frequency Questionnaire characterized daily macronutrient intake over the preceding 6 months. Plasma and fecal SCFA were measured by gas chromatography; gut microbiome composition and diversity by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: A 10 g increase in daily carbohydrate intake associated with higher plasma acetate in IA/T1D (adjusted estimate +5.2 (95% CI 1.1, 9.2) μmol/L p = 0.01) and controls (adjusted estimate +4.1 [95% CI 1.7, 8.5] μmol/L p = 0.04). A 5 g increase in total fat intake associated with lower plasma acetate in IA/T1D and controls. A 5% increase in noncore (junk) food intake associated with reduced richness (adjusted estimate −4.09 [95%CI –7.83, −0.35] p = .03) and evenness (−1.25 [95% CI –2.00, −0.49] p < 0.01) of the gut microbiome in IA/T1D. Fiber intake associated with community structure of the microbiome in IA/T1D. Conclusions: Modest increments in carbohydrate and fat intake associated with plasma acetate in all youth. Increased junk food intake associated with reduced diversity of the gut microbiome in IA/T1D alone. These associations with the gut microbiome in IA/T1D support future efforts to promote SCFA by using dietary interventions.
Keywords: Diet; gut microbiome; islet autoimmunity; short chain fatty acids; type 1 diabetes
Description: First published: 20 January 2021
Rights: © 2021 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
DOI: 10.1111/pedi.13178
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