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Type: Journal article
Title: Lactic acid bacteria in wine: technological advances and evaluation of their functional role
Author: Virdis, C.
Sumby, K.
Bartowsky, E.
Jiranek, V.
Citation: Frontiers in Microbiology, 2021; 11:1-16
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Issue Date: 2021
ISSN: 1664-302X
Statement of
Carla Virdis, Krista Sumby, Eveline Bartowsky and Vladimir Jiranek
Abstract: Currently, the main role of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in wine is to conduct the malolactic fermentation (MLF). This process can increase wine aroma and mouthfeel, improve microbial stability and reduce the acidity of wine. A growing number of studies support the appreciation that LAB can also significantly, positively and negatively, contribute to the sensorial profile of wine through many different enzymatic pathways. This is achieved either through the synthesis of compounds such as diacetyl and esters or by liberating bound aroma compounds such as glycoside-bound primary aromas and volatile thiols which are odorless in their bound form. LAB can also liberate hydroxycinnamic acids from their tartaric esters and have the potential to break down anthocyanin glucosides, thus impacting wine color. LAB can also produce enzymes with the potential to help in the winemaking process and contribute to stabilizing the final product. For example, LAB exhibit peptidolytic and proteolytic activity that could break down the proteins causing wine haze, potentially reducing the need for bentonite addition. Other potential contributions include pectinolytic activity, which could aid juice clarification and the ability to break down acetaldehyde, even when bound to SO2, reducing the need for SO2 additions during winemaking. Considering all these findings, this review summarizes the novel enzymatic activities of LAB that positively or negatively affect the quality of wine. Inoculation strategies, LAB improvement strategies, their potential to be used as targeted additions, and technological advances involving their use in wine are highlighted along with suggestions for future research.
Keywords: MLF; LAB; wine aroma; quality; enzymes; management
Rights: © 2021 Virdis, Sumby, Bartowsky and Jiranek. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.612118
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