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Type: Journal article
Title: Endocrine disruptor compounds-a cause of impaired immune tolerance driving inflammatory disorders of pregnancy?
Author: Schjenken, J.E.
Green, E.S.
Overduin, T.S.
Mah, C.Y.
Russell, D.L.
Robertson, S.A.
Citation: Frontiers in Endocrinology, 2021; 12:607539-1-607539-15
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Issue Date: 2021
ISSN: 1664-2392
Statement of
John E. Schjenken, Ella S. Green, Tenuis S. Overduin, Chui Yan Mah, Darryl L. Russell and Sarah A. Robertson
Abstract: Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are prevalent and ubiquitous in our environment and have substantial potential to compromise human and animal health. Amongst the chronic health conditions associated with EDC exposure, dysregulation of reproductive function in both females and males is prominent. Human epidemiological studies demonstrate links between EDC exposure and infertility, as well as gestational disorders including miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, and preterm birth. Animal experiments show EDCs administered during gestation, or to either parent prior to conception, can interfere with gamete quality, embryo implantation, and placental and fetal development, with consequences for offspring viability and health. It has been presumed that EDCs operate principally through disrupting hormone-regulated events in reproduction and fetal development, but EDC effects on maternal immune receptivity to pregnancy are also implicated. EDCs can modulate both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, to alter inflammatory responses, and interfere with generation of regulatory T (Treg) cells that are critical for pregnancy tolerance. Effects of EDCs on immune cells are complex and likely exerted by both steroid hormone-dependent and hormone-independent pathways. Thus, to better understand how EDCs impact reproduction and pregnancy, it is imperative to consider how immune-mediated mechanisms are affected by EDCs. This review will describe evidence that several EDCs modify elements of the immune response relevant to pregnancy, and will discuss the potential for EDCs to disrupt immune tolerance required for robust placentation and optimal fetal development.
Keywords: Endocrine disrupting compounds; reproduction; reproductive immunology; pregnancy; fetal tolerance; developmental origins of health and disease
Rights: © 2021 Schjenken, Green, Overduin, Mah, Russell and Robertson. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2021.607539
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