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Type: Journal article
Title: Trends in the use, complications and costs of permanent pacemakers in Australia: a nationwide study from 2008-2017
Author: Westaway, S.
Nye, E.
Gallagher, C.
Tu, S.
Clarke, N.
Hanna-Rivero, N.
Emami, M.
Kadhim, K.
Pitman, B.M.
Mahajan, R.
Lau, D.H.
Young, G.D.
Sanders, P.
Wong, C.X.
Citation: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 2021; 44(2):266-273
Publisher: Wiley
Issue Date: 2021
ISSN: 0147-8389
Statement of
Samuel Westaway, Elsbeth Nye, Celine Gallagher, Samuel J. Tu, Nicholas Clarke, Nicole Hanna-Rivero ... et al.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To characterise contemporary pacemaker procedure trends. METHODS: Nationwide analysis of pacemaker procedures and costs between 2008-2017 in Australia. The main outcome measures were total, age- and gender-specific implant, replacement and complication rates and costs. RESULTS: Pacemaker implants increased from 12,153 to 17,862. Implantation rates rose from 55.3 to 72.6 per 100,000, a 2.8% annual increase (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.028; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04; p<0.001). Pacemaker implants in the 80+ age group were 17.37-times higher than the <50 group (95% CI 16.24-18.59; p<0.001), and in males were 1.48-times higher than in females (95% CI 1.42-1.55; p<0.001). However, there were similar increases according to age (p = 0.10) and gender (p = 0.68) over the study period. Left ventricular lead rates were stable (IRR 0.995; 95% CI 0.98-1.01; p = 0.53). Generator replacements decreased from 20.5 to 18.3 per 100,000 (IRR 0.975; 95% CI 0.97-0.98; p<0.001). Although procedures for generator-related complications were stable (IRR 0.995; 95% CI 0.98-1.01; p = 0.54), those for lead-related complications decreased (IRR 0.985; 95% CI 0.98-0.99; p<0.001). Rates for all pacemaker procedures were consistently greater in males (p<0.001). Although annual costs of all pacemaker procedures increased from $178 million to $329 million, inflation-adjusted costs were more stable, rising from $294 million to $329 million. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing demand for pacemaker implants is driven by the ageing population and rising rates across all ages, while replacement and complication procedure rates appeared more stable. Males have consistently greater pacemaker procedure rates than females. Our findings have significant clinical and public health implications for healthcare resource planning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Australia
Rights: © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.
DOI: 10.1111/pace.14161
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