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Type: Journal article
Title: Population-based utility scores for HPV infection and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma among Indigenous Australians
Author: Ju, X.
Canfell, K.
Howard, K.
Garvey, G.
Hedges, J.
Smith, M.
Jamieson, L.
Citation: BMC Public Health, 2021; 21(1):1455-1-1455-11
Publisher: Springer Nature
Issue Date: 2021
ISSN: 1471-2458
Statement of
Xiangqun Ju, Karen Canfell, Kirsten Howard, Gail Garvey, Joanne Hedges, Megan Smith, and Lisa Jamieson
Abstract: Background: Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is associated with high mortality. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant risk factor for OPSCC. Utilities are fundamental values representing the strength of individuals’ preferences for specific health-related outcomes. Our study aim was to work in partnership with Indigenous communities in South Australia to develop, pilot test and estimate utility scores for health states related to HPV, HPV vaccination, precursor OPSCC and its treatment, and early stage OPSCC among Indigenous Australians. Methods: Development and pilot testing of hypothetical HPV and OPSCC health states, specifically through the lens of being Indigenous Australian, was conducted with an Indigenous Reference Group. Six health states were decided upon, with utility scores calculated using a two-stage standard gamble approach among a large convenience sample of Indigenous Australians aged 18+ years residing in South Australia. The rank, percentage of perfect health and utility score of each health state was summarised using means, and medians at 12 months and lifetime duration. Potential differences by age, sex and residential location were assessed using the Wilcox Rank Sum test. Results: Data from 1011 participants was obtained. The mean utility scores decreased with increasing severity of health states, ranging from 0.91–0.92 in ‘screened, cytology normal, HPV vaccination’ and ‘screened, HPV positive, endoscopy normal’, to less than 0.90 (ranging from 0.87–0.88) in lower grade conditions (oral warts and oral intraepithelial neoplasia) and less than 0.80 (ranging from 0.75–0.79) in ‘early stage throat cancer’. Higher utility scores were observed for ‘screened, cytology normal and HPV vaccination’ among younger participants (18–40 years), for ‘early stage invasive throat cancer’ among females, and for ‘oral intraepithelial neoplasia’ and ‘early stage invasive throat cancer’ among metropolitan-dwelling participants.
Keywords: Utility scores; Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC); Human papillomaviruses (HPV); Vaccination; Indigenous Australians
Rights: © The Author(s). 2021 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-11496-z
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Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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