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Type: Journal article
Title: Effects of dietary fat and protein on glucoregulatory hormones in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes
Author: Harray, A.J.
Binkowski, S.
Keating, B.L.
Horowitz, M.
Standfield, S.
Smith, G.
Paramalingam, N.
Jones, T.
King, B.R.
Smart, C.E.M.
Davis, E.A.
Citation: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2021; 107(1):e205-e213
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Issue Date: 2021
ISSN: 0021-972X
Statement of
Amelia J. Harray, Sabrina Binkowski, Barbara L. Keating, Michael Horowitz, Scott Standfield, Grant Smith, Nirubasini Paramalingam, Timothy Jones, Bruce R. King, Carmel E. M. Smart, and Elizabeth A. Davis
Abstract: Context: Dietary fat and protein impact postprandial hyperglycemia in people with type 1 diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Glucoregulatory hormones are also known to modulate gastric emptying and may contribute to this effect. Objective: Investigate the effects of fat and protein on glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), glucagon-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon secretion. Methods: 2 crossover euglycemic insulin clamp clinical trials at 2 Australian pediatric diabetes centers. Participants were 12-21 years (n = 21) with type 1 diabetes for ≥1 year. Participants consumed a low-protein (LP) or high-protein (HP) meal in Study 1, and lowprotein/low-fat (LPLF) or high-protein/high-fat (HPHF) meal in Study 2, all containing 30 g of carbohydrate. An insulin clamp was used to maintain postprandial euglycemia and plasma glucoregulatory hormones were measured every 30 minutes for 5 hours. Data from both cohorts (n = 11, 10) were analyzed separately. The main outcome measure was area under the curve of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon. Results: Meals low in fat and protein had minimal effect on GLP-1, while there was sustained elevation after HP (80.3 ± 16.8 pmol/L) vs LP (56.9 ± 18.6), P = .016, and HPHF (103.0 ± 26.9) vs LPLF (69.5 ± 31.9) meals, P = .002. The prompt rise in GIP after all meals was greater after HP (190.2 ± 35.7 pmol/L) vs LP (152.3 ± 23.3), P = .003, and HPHF (258.6 ± 31.0) vs LPLF (151.7 ± 29.4), P < .001. A rise in glucagon was also seen in response to protein, and HP (292.5 ± 88.1 pg/mL) vs LP (182.8 ± 48.5), P = .010. Conclusion: The impact of fat and protein on postprandial glucose excursions may be mediated by the differential secretion of glucoregulatory hormones. Further studies to better understand these mechanisms may lead to improved personalized postprandial glucose management.
Keywords: Fat
Type 1 Diabetes
Glucoregulatory Hormones
Rights: © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society. All rights reserved.
DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgab614
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