Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/2440/135517
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Type: Journal article
Title: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of a Novel Virulent Klebsiella Phage Kp_Pokalde_002 in a Mouse Model
Author: Dhungana, G.
Nepal, R.
Regmi, M.
Malla, R.
Citation: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 2021; 11:684704-1-684704-11
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Issue Date: 2021
ISSN: 2235-2988
2235-2988
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Gunaraj Dhungana, Roshan Nepal, Madhav Regmi and Rajani Malla
Abstract: Phage therapy is one of the most promising alternatives to antibiotics as we face global antibiotic resistance crisis. However, the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of phage therapy are largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the PK/PD of a locally isolated virulent novel øKp_Pokalde_002 (Podoviridae, C1 morphotype) that infects carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp56) using oral and intraperitoneal (IP) route in a mouse model. The result showed that the øKp_Pokalde_002 rapidly distributed into the systemic circulation within an hour via both oral and IP routes. A higher concentration of phage in plasma was found after 4 h (2.3 x 105 PFU/ml) and 8 h (7.3 x 104 PFU/ml) of administration through IP and oral route, respectively. The phage titer significantly decreased in the blood and other tissues, liver, kidneys, and spleen after 24 h and completely cleared after 72 h of administration. In the Kp56 infection model, the bacterial count significantly decreased in the blood and other organs by 4–7 log10 CFU/ml after 24 h of øKp_Pokalde_002 administration. Elimination half-life of øKp_Pokalde_002 was relatively shorter in the presence of host-bacteria Kp56 compared to phage only, suggesting rapid clearance of phage in the presence of susceptible host. Further, administration of the øKp_Pokalde_002 alone in healthy mice (via IP or oral) did not stimulate pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a and IL-6). Also, treatment with øKp_Pokalde_002 resulted in a significant reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a and IL-6) caused by bacterial infection, thereby reducing the tissue inflammation. In conclusion, the øKp_Pokalde_002 possess good PK/PD properties and can be considered as a potent therapeutic candidate for future phage therapy in carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infections.
Keywords: bacteriophage; PK/PD; carbapenem-resistant infections; Klebsiella pneumoniae; phage therapy
Description: Published: 16 August 2021
Rights: Copyright © 2021 Dhungana, Nepal, Regmi and Malla. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.684704
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