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Type: Journal article
Title: Evaluation of the EQ-5D-5L, EQ-VAS stand-alone component and Oxford knee score in the Australian knee arthroplasty population utilising minimally important difference, concurrent validity, predictive validity and responsiveness
Author: Lin, D.-Y.
Cheok, T.S.
Kaambwa, B.
Samson, A.J.
Morrison, C.
Chan, T.
Kroon, H.M.
Jaarsma, R.L.
Citation: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 2023; 21(1):41-1-41-11
Publisher: BMC
Issue Date: 2023
ISSN: 1477-7525
Statement of
D-Yin Lin, Tim Soon Cheok, Billingsley Kaambwa, Anthony J. Samson, Craig Morrison, Teik Chan, Hidde M. Kroon and Ruurd L. Jaarsma
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), EQ-5D-5L utility index and EQ-5D visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) for health-related quality of life outcome measurement in patients undergoing elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery. Methods: In this prospective multi-centre study, the OKS and EQ-5D-5L index scores were collected preoperatively, six weeks (6w) and six months (6 m) following TKA. The OKS, EQ-VAS and EQ-5D-5L index were evaluated for minimally important difference (MID), concurrent validity, predictive validity (Spearman's Rho of predicted and observed values from a generalised linear regression model (GLM)), responsiveness (effect size (ES) and standard response mean (SRM)). The MID for the individual patient was determined utilising two approaches; distribution-based and anchor-based. Results: 533 patients were analysed. The EQ-5D-5L utility index showed good concurrent validity with the OKS (r = 0.72 preoperatively, 0.65 at 6w and 0.69 at 6 m). Predictive validity for the EQ-5D-5L index was lower than OKS when regressed. Responsiveness was large for all fields at 6w for the EQ-5D-5L and OKS (EQ-5D-5L ES 0.87, SRM 0.84; OKS ES 1.35, SRM 1.05) and 6 m (EQ-5D-5L index ES 1.31, SRM 0.95; OKS ES 1.69, SRM 1.59). The EQ-VAS returned poorer results, at 6w an ES of 0.37 (small) and SRM of 0.36 (small). At 6 m, the EQ-VAS had an ES of 0.59 (moderate) and SRM of 0.47 (small). It, however, had similar predictive validity to the OKS, and better than the EQ-5D-5L index. MID determined using anchor approach, was shown that for OKS at 6 weeks it was 8.84 ± 9.28 and at 6 months 13.37 ± 9.89. For the EQ-5D-5L index at 6 weeks MID was 0.23 ± 0.39, and at 6 months 0.26 ± 0.36. Conclusions: The EQ-5D-5L index score and the OKS demonstrate good concurrent validity. The EQ-5D-5L index demonstrated lower predictive validity at 6w, and 6 m than the OKS, and both PROMs had adequate responsiveness. The EQ-VAS had poorer responsiveness but better predictive validity than the EQ-5D-5L index. This article includes MID estimates for the Australian knee arthroplasty population.
Keywords: Arthroplasty
Description: Published online: 10 May 2023
Rights: © The Author(s) 2023. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
DOI: 10.1186/s12955-023-02126-w
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