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Type: Journal article
Title: Localised enamel hypoplasia of human deciduous canines: genotype or environment?
Author: Taji, S.
Hughes, T.
Rogers, J.
Townsend, G.
Citation: Australian Dental Journal, 2000; 45(2):83-90
Publisher: Australian Dental Assn Inc
Issue Date: 2000
ISSN: 0045-0421
Statement of
Sue Taji, Toby Hughes, Jim Rogers, Grant Townsend
Abstract: A discrete area of defective enamel formation that appears on the labial surface of the crowns of deciduous canine teeth has been described in both recent and prehistoric human population, with reported frequencies varying from 1 to 45 per cent. Suggestions about the aetiology of this localized hypoplasia range from genotypic factors to environmental conditions and systemic effects. The major aims of this study were to describe the frequency of occurrence and pattern of expression of the lesion in Australian Aboriginal and Caucasian ethnic groups, and to clarify the role of genetic factors by examining a sample of twins. The study sample consisted of dental casts of 181 pairs of Australian Caucasian twins, 215 Aborigines and 122 Caucasian singletons, together with 253 extracted deciduous canines. Examination of dental casts and extracted teeth was undertaken under 2X magnification with emphasis being placed upon location and expression of the lesion. The defect was observed in 49 per cent of twins and 44 per cent of Aborigines, but only 36 per cent of singletons. The percentages of affected teeth in each group were: 18 per cent in twins, 17 per cent in Aborigines and 13 per cent in Caucasians. A significant proportion of the defects occurred on the mesial aspect of the labial surface, in the middle area incisocervically, with the majority in the lower jaw. Anumber of significant differences in frequency were observed between groups, sexes, arches and sides. The results confirm some of the findings of previous studies, but also suggest that none of environmental, genetic or systemic factors can be ruled out as being involved in aetiology of the defect. The higher incidence of the lesion occurring on the mesial aspect of the labial surface is suggestive of physical trauma. Also, the vulnerability of the prominent developing mandibular canine, with its thin or missing labial covering of bone, would be expected to lead to higher prevalence of the lesion in the lower jaw. Although not definitive, the results of concordance analyses in twins were suggestive of a possible genetic predisposition in the formation of the lesion. Further research with a greater clinical orientation and emphasis on determing specific aetiological factors within any given environment in different ethnic groups may provide better insight into the ambiguous aetiology of the hypoplastic enamel defect.
Keywords: Enamel defects; trauma; genetics; twins
Description: The document attached has been archived with permission from the Australian Dental Association (9th Jan 2008). An external link to the publisher’s copy is included.
RMID: 0001000098
DOI: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2000.tb00246.x
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Appears in Collections:Dentistry publications

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