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Type: Journal article
Title: Ex vivo early embryo development and effects on gene expression and imprinting
Author: Gardner, D.
Lane, M.
Citation: Reproduction Fertility and Development, 2005; 17(3):361-370
Publisher: C S I R O Publishing
Issue Date: 2005
ISSN: 1031-3613
Statement of
David K. Gardner, and Michelle Lane
Abstract: The environment to which the mammalian embryo is exposed during the preimplantation period of development has a profound effect on the physiology and viability of the conceptus. It has been demonstrated that conditions that alter gene expression, and in some instances the imprinting status of specific genes, have all previously been shown to adversely affect cell physiology. Thus, questions are raised regarding the aetiology of abnormal gene expression and altered imprinting patterns, and whether problems can be averted by using more physiological culture conditions. It is also of note that the sensitivity of the embryo to its surroundings decreases as development proceeds. Post compaction, environmental conditions have a lesser effect on gene function. This, therefore, has implications regarding the conditions used for IVF and the culture of the cleavage stage embryo. The developmental competence of the oocyte also impacts gene expression in the embryo, and therefore superovulation has been implicated in abnormal methylation and imprinting in the resultant embryo. Furthermore, the genetics and dietary status of the mother have a profound impact on embryo development and gene expression. The significance of specific animal models for human assisted reproductive technologies (ART) is questioned, given that most cattle data have been obtained from in vitro-matured oocytes and that genes imprinted in domestic and laboratory animals are not necessarily imprinted in the human. Patients treated with ART have fertility problems, which in turn may predispose their gametes or embryos to greater sensitivities to the process of ART. Whether this is from the drugs involved in the ovulation induction or from the IVF, intracytoplasmic sperm injection or culture procedures themselves remains to be determined. Alternatively, it may be that epigenetic alterations are associated with infertility and symptoms are subsequently revealed through ART. Whatever the aetiology, continued long-term monitoring of the children conceived through ART is warranted.
Keywords: Serum
Reproductive Techniques, Assisted
Embryo Culture Techniques
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Genomic Imprinting
Embryonic Development
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
DOI: 10.1071/RD04103
Published version:
Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest 2
Obstetrics and Gynaecology publications

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