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Type: Journal article
Title: Reactivity with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane confounds immunodetection of acrolein-adducted proteins
Author: Burcham, P.
Fontaine, F.
Petersen, D.
Pyke, S.
Citation: Chemical Research in Toxicology, 2003; 16(10):1196-1201
Publisher: Amer Chemical Soc
Issue Date: 2003
ISSN: 0893-228X
Statement of
Philip C. Burcham, Frank R. Fontaine, Dennis R. Petersen and Simon M. Pyke
Abstract: The toxic R,â-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein readily attacks proteins, generating adducts at cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues. In this study, rabbit antiserum was raised against acrolein-modified keyhole limpet hemocyanin in the expectation that it would allow immunodetection of adducted proteins in biological samples. Using slot-blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the antiserum detected acrolein-modified protein with high sensitivity and specificity. Adduct immunodetection was strongly inhibited by acrolein-modified polylysine but not polyhistidine. Efforts to develop a Western blotting method for detecting adducted proteins in cell lysates were hampered by irreproducible outcomes, evidently due to adduct instability during SDS-PAGE. Indeed, adducts generated via brief exposure of a model protein to acrolein displayed pH- and concentration-dependent instability to tris(hydroxymethyl)- aminomethane (Tris), a nucleophilic buffer used in protein electrophoresis. The effect was most striking when Tris solutions were buffered to pH 8.0 and higher. In contrast, adducts formed during extended exposure to acrolein (g60 min) were completely stable to Tris. The time dependence of susceptibility raised the possibility that Tris interfered with specific steps in lysine modification, which involves stepwise Michael addition of two molecules of acrolein to the same residue, followed by condensation and dehydration to form a heterocyclic adduct, N -(3-formyl-3,4-dehydropiperidino)lysine. We hypothesize that carbonyl-retaining Michael adducts may react with Tris by forming imines with the primary amine of the buffer. Consistent with this idea, triethanolamine, a tertiary amine buffer unable to form imines, had no effect on acrolein-adducted protein. These effects of Tris may explain difficulties in the detection of acrolein-adducted proteins during conventional Western blotting procedures.
Keywords: Animals
Molecular Structure
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Time Factors
Rights: © 2003 American Chemical Society
DOI: 10.1021/tx0341106
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