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|Title:||Effects of transforming growth factor-beta and formula feeding on systemic immune responses to dietary beta-lactoglobulin in allergy-prone rats|
|Citation:||Pediatric Research, 2006; 59(5):650-655|
|Publisher:||Int Pediatric Research Foundation Inc|
|Abstract:||Early nutritional events have the potential to affect health outcomes in later life including the development of allergy. Food allergy is usually the first manifestation of allergy. Breast-feeding has been associated with a protective effect against the development of allergy, but the evidence is contradictory and the mechanisms involved are not clear. We hypothesize that milk cytokines, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), play a role in regulating immune responses to dietary antigens. Using a rat pup model of gastrostomy feeding, the immune response profile, at weaning and post-weaning, of allergy-prone Brown Norway rats fed formula supplementation with TGF-beta was assessed. We show that feeding formula to allergy-prone rat pups results in increased total IgE immunoglobulin, beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) IgG1 antibody, and mucosal mast cell activation, as measured by serum rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII) levels in the gut. Supplementation of formula with physiological levels of TGF-beta down-regulated the BLG IgG1 response as well as total IgE and mucosal mast cell activation. Supplementation of formula also resulted in an increase in Th1 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-18, IL-12p40, IL-12p35, and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and an increase in IL-10. In conclusion, TGF-beta supplementation of formula moved the immune response profile of allergy prone (Th2 type) rat pups toward a Th1 profile in the suckling period. Importantly, this immune profile persisted after weaning when TGF-beta was no longer present in the diet.|
|Keywords:||Ileum; Spleen; Eosinophils; Th1 Cells; Mast Cells; Milk; Animals; Rats, Inbred BN; Animals, Newborn; Rats; Milk Hypersensitivity; Serine Endopeptidases; Transforming Growth Factor beta; Immunoglobulin E; Immunoglobulin G; Lactoglobulins; Recombinant Proteins; RNA, Messenger; Cytokines; Antibody Specificity; Immune Tolerance; Pregnancy; Infant Formula; Female; Chymases|
|Appears in Collections:||Paediatrics publications|
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