Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/2440/24049
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Type: Journal article
Title: Early life stress and adult emotional experience: an international perspective
Author: Cohen, R.
Hitsman, B.
Paul, R.
McCaffery, J.
Stroud, L.
Sweet, L.
Gunstad, J.
Niaura, R.
McFarlane, A.
Bryant, R.
Gordon, E.
Citation: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 2006; 36(1):35-52
Publisher: Baywood Publ Co Inc
Issue Date: 2006
ISSN: 0091-2174
1541-3527
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Cohen, RA; Bryant, RA; Gordon, E; Paul, RH; Stroud, L; Gunstad, J; Hitsman, BL; Mccaffery, J; Sweet, L; Niaura, R; MacFarlane, A
Abstract: Early life stress (ELS) has been linked to adult psychopathology, though few studies have examined the universality of specific adverse childhood events (ACEs) in healthy adults. We examined the co-occurrence of specific ACEs and their relationship to current emotional distress in an international sample of adults without psychopathology. Participants were 1659 men and women recruited for an international neurocognitive-neuroimaging database from sites in the United States, Australia, England, and the Netherlands. Participants had no current or prior diagnosis of major depression, anxiety, substance abuse, or neurological brain disorder. The occurrence and age on onset of 19 ACEs was assessed by a self-report questionnaire (ELSQ), and current symptoms of stress, depression, and anxiety by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). The relationship of specific ACEs to DASS symptoms was examined. Participants reported relatively high prevalence of ACEs. Only 27.6% of the sample reported no ACEs, while 39.5% reported one or two significant experiences and 32.9% reported more than two ACEs. Rates of most ACEs were quite similar across the three continents. Various ACEs were significantly associated with current DASS severity, particularly ACEs involving emotional abuse, neglect, and family conflict, violence, and breakup. Finding nearly one-third of the sample reported three or more ACEs suggest a high prevalence of ELS in otherwise healthy "normal" adults around the world. Associations between ELS and current emotional distress suggest that these events have functional relevance and deserve further investigation.
Keywords: Humans
Prevalence
Multivariate Analysis
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Regression Analysis
Depression
Stress, Psychological
Anxiety
Life Change Events
Age of Onset
Adult
Child
United States
Australia
Europe
Female
Male
DOI: 10.2190/5R62-9PQY-0NEL-TLPA
Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest 6
Molecular and Biomedical Science publications

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