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|Title:||Re-establishment of neurochemical coding of preganglionic neurons innervating transplanted targets|
|Citation:||Neuroscience, 2003; 117(2):347-360|
|Publisher:||Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd|
|Abstract:||We investigated the effect on neurochemical phenotype of changing the targets innervated by sympathetic preganglionic neurons. In neonatal rats, the adrenal gland was transplanted into the neck, to replace the postganglionic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion. Transplanted adrenal glands survived, and contained noradrenergic and adrenergic chromaffin cells, and adrenal ganglion cells. Retrograde tracing from the transplants showed that they were innervated by preganglionic neurons that would normally have supplied postganglionic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion. The neurochemical phenotypes of preganglionic axons innervating transplanted chromaffin cells were compared with those innervating the normal adrenal medulla or superior cervical ganglion neurons. As in the normal adrenal gland, preganglionic nerve fibres apposing transplanted chromaffin cells were cholinergic. The peptide and calcium-binding protein content of preganglionic fibres was similar in normal and transplanted adrenal glands. In both cases, cholinergic fibres immunoreactive for enkephalin targeted adrenergic chromaffin cells, whilst cholinergic fibres with co-localised calretinin-immunoreactivity innervated noradrenergic chromaffin cells and adrenal ganglion cells. In contrast to the innervation of normal adrenal glands, these axons lacked immunoreactivity to nitric oxide synthase. In a set of control experiments, the superior cervical ganglion was subjected to preganglionic denervation in rat pups the same age as those that received adrenal transplants, and the ganglion was allowed to be re-innervated over the same time course as the adrenal transplants were studied. When the superior cervical ganglion was re-innervated by preganglionic nerve fibres, we observed that all aspects of chemical coding were restored, including cholinergic markers, nitric oxide synthase, enkephalin, calcitonin gene-related peptide and calcium binding proteins in predicted combinations, although the density of nerve fibres was always lower in re-innervated ganglia. These data show that the neurochemical phenotypes expressed by preganglionic neurons re-innervating adrenal chromaffin cells are selective and similar to those seen in the normal adrenal gland. Two explanations are advanced: either that contact of preganglionic axons with novel target cells has induced a switch in their neurochemical phenotypes, or that there has been target-selective reinnervation by pre-existing fibres of appropriate phenotype. Regardless of which of these alternatives is correct, the restoration of normal preganglionic codes to the superior cervical ganglion following denervation supports the idea that the target tissue influences the neurochemistry of innervating preganglionic neurons.|
|Keywords:||Adrenal Glands; Superior Cervical Ganglion; Autonomic Fibers, Postganglionic; Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic; Animals; Animals, Newborn; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Female; Male|
|Appears in Collections:||Molecular and Biomedical Science publications|
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