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Type: Journal article
Title: Report from the in vitro micronucleus assay working group
Author: Kirsch-Volders, M.
Sofuni, T.
Aardema, M.
Albertini, S.
Eastmond, D.
Fenech, M.
Ishidate, M.
Lorge, E.
Norppa, H.
Surralles, J.
Von Der Hude, W.
Wakata, A.
Citation: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 2000; 35(3):167-172
Publisher: Wiley-Liss
Issue Date: 2000
ISSN: 0893-6692
Abstract: At the Washington International Workshop on Genotoxicity Test Procedures (March 25-26, 1999), the current methodologies and data for the in vitro micronucleus test were reviewed. From this, guidelines for the conduct of specific aspects of the protocol were developed. Because there are a number of important in vitro micronucleus validation studies in progress, it was not possible to design a definitive, internationally harmonized protocol at this time. Agreement was achieved on the following topics: Cells. The choice of cells is flexible, yet the choice of cell type should be justified and take into consideration doubling time, spontaneous frequency of micronuclei, and genetic background. Slide preparation. A fixation method that preserves the cytoplasm and cytoplasmic boundaries, and minimizes clumping should be used. Use of fluorescent DNA-specific dyes is encouraged for better detection of small micronuclei. Analysis. Micronuclei should have a diameter less than one-third of the main nucleus, and should be clearly distinguishable from the main nucleus. In the cytokinesis-block method, binucleated cells selected for analysis should have two clearly distinguishable main nuclei. Cells where the main nucleus(ei) is undergoing apoptosis should not be scored for micronuclei because the assumed micronuclei may have been the result of nuclear fragmentation during the apoptotic process. Toxicity. Cytotoxicity can be measured by various methods including cell growth, cell counts, nucleation (i.e., percent binucleated), division/proliferation index, confluence. A majority of the group recommended that the highest concentration should induce at least 50% cytotoxicity (by whatever measure is selected). Cytochalasin B. There is much debate regarding the use of cytochalasin B. For human lymphocytes, the use of cytochalasin B (6 microg/ml [lymphocytes cultured from whole blood cells] and 3-6 microg/ml [isolated lymphocyte cultures]) is recommended. For cell lines, because there were no definitive data showing a clear advantage or disadvantage of the use of cytochalasin B for a variety of chemicals, the majority opinion of the group was that at this time, the use of cytochalasin B for cell lines is considered optional. Further studies (many chemicals of a variety of potencies, tested both with and without cytochalasin B) are clearly needed to resolve this issue. Number of doses. At least three concentrations should be scored for micronuclei. Treatment/harvest times. At this time, there are not enough data to define the most appropriate treatment/harvest times. Following the principles of the in vitro metaphase assay (with or without metabolic activation), it was agreed that there was a need for a short treatment followed by a recovery time in the absence of test chemical, there was a need for a long treatment (maybe with and without recovery time), and ideally, treatment should cover cells in different cell cycle stages.
Keywords: Lymphocytes
Chromosome Aberrations
Cytochalasin B
Micronucleus Tests
DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2280(2000)35:3<167::AID-EM3>3.0.CO;2-G
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