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Type: Thesis
Title: Physiological attributes of drought-adaptation and associated molecular markers in the seri/babax hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) population.
Author: Olivares-Villegas, Juan Jose
Issue Date: 2007
School/Discipline: School of Agriculture, Food and Wine
Abstract: Agronomic and physiological traits associated with drought adaptation were assessed within the Seri/Babax recombinant inbred line population, derived from parents similar in height and maturity but divergent in their sensitivity to drought. Field trials under different water regimes were conducted over three years in Mexico and under rainfed conditions in Australia. Under drought, canopy temperature (CT) was the single-most drought-adaptive trait contributing to a higher performance (R2= 0.71, p<0.0001), highly heritable (h2= 0.65, p<0.0001) and consistently associated with yield phenotypically (r= -0.75, p<0.0001) and genetically [R(g)= -0.95, p<0.0001]. CT epitomises a mechanism of dehydration avoidance expressed throughout the growing season and across latitudes, which can be utilised as a selection criteria to identify high-yielding wheat genotypes or as an important predictor of yield performance under drought. Early response under drought, suggested by a high association of CT with estimates of biomass at booting (r= -0.44, p<0.0001), leaf chlorophyll (r= -0.22,p<0.0001) and plant height (r= -0.64, p<0.0001), contrast with the small relationships with anthesis and maturity (averaged, r= -0.10, p<0.0001), and with osmotic potential (r= -0.20, p<0.0001). Results suggest that the ability to extract water from the soil under increasing soil water deficit is a major attribute of drought adaptation. Ample genetic variation and significant transgressive segregation under drought suggested a polygenic governance feasible of dissection via molecular markers of CT and associated physiological and agronomic traits. Bulked segregant analysis of selected secondary traits was utilised as an alternative to complete genome mapping, due to a low polymorphism (27%) within the cross and limited chromosomic linkage of loci. The assessment of the extremes of expression in a genotypic subset with a composite molecular database of 127 markers (PCR-based and AFLPs) allowed evaluation of the three hexaploid wheat genomes and coverage of all chromosomic groups, except 3D. One-way analysis of variance indicated significant associations of loci explaining phenotypic variance under drought and rainfed conditions, of 20-70% in Mexico and 20-45% in Australia (F>5.00, p<0.05). Significant loci were established in both latitudes for all physiological and agronomic traits assessed via BSA, with CT being the trait with the most numerous associations (in Mexico, 34 loci; in Australia, 24). Results demonstrate an efficient development of molecular markers associated to physiological traits under specific soil water conditions in Mexico and Australia, and suggest further genomic and transcriptomic studies be conducted for unravelling the complex relationship between drought adaptation and performance under drought.
Advisor: McDonald, Glenn Keith
Reynolds, Matthew
William, Manilal
Dissertation Note: Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, 2007
Subject: Wheat Physiology. Wheat Drought resistance.
Keywords: drought adaptation, canopy temperature, physiological breeding, yield potential, bulked segregant analysis, molecular markers
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