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Type: Journal article
Title: Feed intolerance in critical illness is associated with increased basal and nutrient-stimulated plasma cholecystokinin concentrations
Author: Nguyen, Q.
Fraser, R.
Chapman, M.
Bryant, L.
Holloway, R.
Yandell, R.
Wishart, J.
Feinle-Bisset, C.
Horowitz, M.
Citation: Critical Care Medicine, 2007; 35(1):82-88
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Issue Date: 2007
ISSN: 0090-3493
Abstract: <h4>Objective</h4>Delayed gastric emptying and intolerance to gastric feeding occur frequently in the critically ill. In these patients, gastric motor responses to nutrients are disturbed. Cholecystokinin (CCK) slows gastric emptying. The aim of this study was to determine plasma CCK concentrations during fasting and in response to small-intestine nutrient infusion in critically ill patients.<h4>Design</h4>Randomized, controlled trial.<h4>Setting</h4>Level 3, mixed medical and surgical intensive care unit.<h4>Subjects</h4>A total of 31 mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients (23 men, 51 +/- 3 yrs) and 28 healthy subjects (21 men, 43 +/- 2 yrs).<h4>Interventions</h4>Subjects received two 60-min duodenal infusions of Ensure (complete balanced nutrition), at 1 and 2 kcal/min, in a randomized, single-blind fashion. The nutrient infusions were separated by a 2-hr "washout" period. Blood samples for measurement of plasma CCK concentrations were obtained immediately before and every 20 mins during nutrient infusion.<h4>Measurements and main results</h4>Baseline and nutrient-stimulated plasma CCK concentrations were higher in critically ill patients compared with healthy subjects (p < .001). The magnitude of the rise in plasma CCK in response to nutrients was also greater in the critically ill (p < .01). Of the 23 patients who received enteral nutrition before the study, nine were intolerant of gastric feeding. In these patients, both the baseline plasma CCK concentration and the magnitude of CCK increase during nutrient infusions were greater than in patients with feed tolerance (p < .002). Impaired renal function was associated with an increased baseline CCK concentration but had no effect on the CCK response to nutrients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Both fasting and nutrient-stimulated plasma CCK concentrations are increased in critically ill patients, particularly in those with feed intolerance. This may provide a humoral mechanism for delayed gastric emptying seen in critical illness.
Keywords: Duodenum
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Kidney Diseases
Critical Illness
Dietary Sucrose
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Respiration, Artificial
Enteral Nutrition
Length of Stay
Analysis of Variance
Single-Blind Method
Intubation, Gastrointestinal
Gastrointestinal Motility
Gastric Emptying
Time Factors
Food, Formulated
Feedback, Physiological
DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000250317.10791.6C
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