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|Title:||Glia: novel counter-regulators of opioid analgesia|
|Citation:||Trends in Neurosciences, 2005; 28(12):661-669|
|Publisher:||Elsevier Science London|
|Abstract:||Development of analgesic tolerance and withdrawalinduced pain enhancement present serious difficulties for the use of opioids for pain control. Although neuronal mechanisms to account for these phenomena have been sought for many decades, their bases remain unresolved. Within the past four years, a novel nonneuronal candidate has been uncovered that opposes acute opioid analgesia and contributes to development of opioid tolerance and tolerance-associated pain enhancement. This novel candidate is spinal cord glia. Glia are important contributors to the creation of enhanced pain states via the release of neuroexcitatory substances. New data suggest that glia also release neuroexcitatory substances in response to morphine, thereby opposing its effects. Controlling glial activation could therefore increase the clinical utility of analgesic drugs.|
|Keywords:||Brain; Spinal Cord; Neuroglia; Nociceptors; Animals; Humans; Pain; Neurotransmitter Agents; Analgesics, Opioid; Drug Tolerance|
|Appears in Collections:||Earth and Environmental Sciences publications|
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