Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/43773
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Type: Journal article
Title: Lifestyle impact and the biology of the human scrotum
Author: Ivell, R.
Citation: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 2007; 5(15):1-8
Publisher: Biomed Central Ltd.
Issue Date: 2007
ISSN: 1477-7827
1477-7827
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Richard Ivell
Abstract: The possession of a scrotum to contain the male gonads is a characteristic feature of almost all mammals, and appears to have evolved to allow the testes and epididymis to be exposed to a temperature a few degrees below that of core body temperature. Analysis of cryptorchid patients, and those with varicocele suggest that mild scrotal warming can be detrimental to sperm production, partly by effects on the stem cell population, and partly by effects on later stages of spermatogenesis and sperm maturation. Recent studies on the effects of clothing and lifestyle emphasize that these can also lead to chronically elevated scrotal temperatures. In particular, the wearing of nappies by infants is a cause for concern in this regard. Together all of the evidence indirectly supports the view that lifestyle factors in addition to other genetic and environmental influences could be contributing to the secular trend in declining male reproductive parameters. The challenge will be to provide relevant and targeted experimental results to support or refute the currently circumstantial evidence.
Keywords: Scrotum; Animals; Humans; Body Temperature; Life Style; Fertility; Male
Rights: © 2007 Ivell; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
RMID: 0020070751
DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-5-15
Published version: http://www.rbej.com/content/5/1/15
Appears in Collections:Molecular and Biomedical Science publications

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