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|Title:||GM-CSF regulation of embryo development and pregnancy|
|Citation:||Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, 2007; 18(3-4):287-298|
|Publisher:||Elsevier Sci Ltd|
|Sarah A. Robertson|
|Abstract:||The reproductive tissues undergo profound structural changes and major immune adaptation to accommodate pregnancy. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is one of an array of cytokines with pivotal roles in embryo implantation and subsequent development. Several cell lineages in the reproductive tract and gestational tissues synthesise GM-CSF under direction by ovarian steroid hormones and signalling agents originating in male seminal fluid and the conceptus. The pre-implantation embryo, invading placental trophoblast cells and the abundant populations of leukocytes controlling maternal immune tolerance are all subject to GM-CSF regulation. GM-CSF deficiency in pregnancy adversely impacts fetal and placental development, as well as progeny viability and growth after birth, highlighting this cytokine as a central maternal determinant of pregnancy outcome with clinical relevance in human fertility.|
|Keywords:||Ovary; Leukocytes; Blastocyst; Animals; Humans; Mice; Steroids; Hormones; Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Cell Lineage; Pregnancy; Models, Biological; Female; Embryo, Mammalian|
|Description:||Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Obstetrics and Gynaecology publications|
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