Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/44526
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Type: Journal article
Title: 'Listening' and 'talking' to neurons: Implications of immune activation for pain control and increasing the efficacy of opioids
Author: Watkins, L.
Hutchinson, M.
Milligan, E.
Maier, S.
Citation: Brain Research Reviews, 2007; 56(1):148-169
Publisher: Elsevier Science BV
Issue Date: 2007
ISSN: 0165-0173
1872-6321
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Linda R. Watkins, Mark R. Hutchinson, Erin D. Milligan and Steven F. Maier
Abstract: t is recently become clear that activated immune cells and immune-like glial cells can dramatically alter neuronal function. By increasing neuronal excitability, these non-neuronal cells are now implicated in the creation and maintenance of pathological pain, such as occurs in response to peripheral nerve injury. Such effects are exerted at multiple sites along the pain pathway, including at peripheral nerves, dorsal root ganglia, and spinal cord. In addition, activated glial cells are now recognized as disrupting the pain suppressive effects of opioid drugs and contributing to opioid tolerance and opioid dependence/withdrawal. While this review focuses on regulation of pain and opioid actions, such immune–neuronal interactions are broad in their implications. Such changes in neuronal function would be expected to occur wherever immune-derived substances come in close contact with
Keywords: Neurophatic pain; Morphine; Tolerance; Dependence/withdrawal; Interleukin; Cytokines; Glia; Microglia; Astrocytes; Dorsal root ganglia; Peripheral nerves; Spinal cord
Description: Copyright © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
RMID: 0020076190
DOI: 10.1016/j.brainresrev.2007.06.006
Description (link): http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/506049/description#description
Appears in Collections:Pharmacology publications

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