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|Title:||Role of Pyrenophora teres toxins in net blotch of barley.|
|School/Discipline:||School of Agriculture, Food and Wine : Plant and Food Science|
|Abstract:||Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of net blotch of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), exists in two forms; P. teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata. Both forms induce a combination of brown necrotic spots and extensive chlorosis in susceptible barley cultivars. Although a number of low molecular weight compounds (LMWCs) have been previously isolated from P. teres culture filtrates, they only induced certain components of symptoms. Fungal metabolites were extracted from culture filtrates of both forms of the pathogen and separated into low (<3kDa) and high molecular weight compounds (HMWCs, >10 kDa) with each fraction inducing a component of the net blotch symptoms in a barley leaf toxicity assay. Inactivation of both LMWCs (<1kDa) and HMWCs resulted in loss of activity confirming their potential role in symptom development. Low molecular weight compounds induced chlorosis and water soaking but not the brown necrotic spots or lesions usually seen during the infection of barley by P. teres. The high molecular weight compounds (>10 kDa) induced the brown necrotic spots or lesions with no chlorosis evident. Further characterisation of LMWCs showed that they are not host specific while HMWCs exhibited host specificity. LMWCs were purified and further analysed using high voltage paper electrophoresis, staining and mass spectrometry. Electrophoretic properties and staining of the LMWCs with ninhydrin indicated that both forms of P. teres produced similar LMWCs in the conditions grown. Each form produced eight ninhydrin-positive compounds with the samerelative mobilities. Each individual compound was shown to induce chlorosis in excised barley leaves. All compounds except the one isolated in this study appear to be derivatives of or are the previously described compounds; N-(2-amino-2carboxyethyl) aspartic acid (Toxin A), aspergillomarasmine A, anhydroaspergillomarasmine A and aspergillomarasmine B. The exception is a bioactive UV absorbing LMWC which appears to be a reductive conjugation of the α-keto acid of phenylalanine with Toxin A. The HMWCs (>10kDa) were proteinaceous since they were identifiable using Coomassie staining. Additionally, the loss of activity that occurred with incubation at 40, 60, and 80 °C for 30 and 60 min followed a pattern fairly typical for protein denaturation. Further, treatment with protease decreased their phytotoxicity in proportion to the amount of enzyme used. Enzyme and heat treatment of proteins extracted from each form showed that proteins of P. teres f. teres are more resistant to heat and enzyme treatment compared with those of P. teres f. maculata. This suggests the protein(s) involved in symptom induction by P. teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata are different which contributes to the difference in the symptom expression during the interaction between the pathogens and barley. Proteinaceous metabolites extracted from P. teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata ranged from 10 to 100 kDa. Fractions purified using gel filtration had biological activity when they contained eight proteins when extracted from P. teres f. maculata (90, 80, 75, 55, 48, 35, 14 and 12 kDa) and six proteins when extracted from P. teres f. teres (90, 80, 55, 48, 14 and 12 kDa). Additionally, intercellular washing fluids (IWF) extracted from barley plants inoculated with both forms of P. teres, contained proteins of the same size as those in the biologically active fractions extracted from culture filtrates of P. teres f. maculata (80, 14 and 12 kDa) and P. teres f. teres (80, 48 and 14 kDa). Automated MS/MS sequencing of the biologically active proteins showed no resemblance to the sequences or conserved domain information available in public databases and as a consequence, these proteins were considered as novel proteins for P. teres. However, exact short matches with fragments resulting from the 80, 48 and 14 kDa proteins, showed considerable homology with ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and their components, cellulases, serine proteinases as well as some hypothetical proteins isolated from different fungal species. Reaction of six plant species including one susceptible barley cultivar (Sloop) and one resistant line (CI9214) to P. teres showed that partially purified proteins induce the symptoms selectively in barley cultivars where the proteinaceous metabolites only induced brown necrotic spot/lesions in barley with a greater response seen on the susceptible cultivar Sloop when compared to the resistant line CI9214. No symptoms were seen on other plant species employed in this study suggesting that the proteinaceous metabolites isolated in this study are host specific phytotoxins. This research has allowed the first isolation of proteinaceous host-specific toxins from P. teres as well as the identification of a UV-sensitive LMWC phytotoxin not previously described. Proteinaceous toxins induced brown necrotic spots/lesions specific to the host while the LMWCs induced chlorosis in a number of different plant species. This contributes significantly to the body of knowledge defining how symptoms are caused during the pathogenicity process in the interaction between P. teres and barley.|
|Advisor:||Able, Amanda Jane|
Catcheside, David Edward Arnold
|Dissertation Note:||Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, 2007|
Barley net-spot blotch disease.
Barley -- Diseases and pests.
|Keywords:||Pyrenophora teres; toxins; barley|
|Provenance:||Copyright material removed from digital thesis. See print copy in University of Adelaide library for full text.|
|Appears in Collections:||Research Theses|
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|01front.pdf||128.74 kB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
|02chapters1-2.pdf||1.14 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
|03chapter3.pdf||1.32 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
|04chapters4-5.pdf||1.58 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
|05ref-append.pdf||190.53 kB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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