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Type: Thesis
Title: Parasite interactions between wild and farmed yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) in southern Australia.
Author: Hutson, Kate S.
Issue Date: 2007
School/Discipline: School of Earth and Environmental Sciences : Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Abstract: Metazoan parasites threaten the development and expansion of yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) sea-cage aquaculture in Australia. There is international speculation that parasite transmission from farmed to wild fish leads to increased incidence of parasitism in wild fish. Conversely, transfer of parasites from wild fish to farmed fish can negatively impact upon the health of farmed fish. Baseline information on the parasite assemblage of wild S. lalandi in Australia will: 1) allow informed judgments to be made in order to responsibly monitor, and perhaps remedy, potentially negative impacts and; 2) enable identification of parasite species of potential harm to the Australian S. lalandi aquaculture industry. I collected wild Seriola spp. (Carangidae) throughout southern Australia and examined them for metazoan parasites. Fifty-six metazoan parasite species are identified, including one new species. A taxonomic listing is provided for the metazoan parasites found. Taxonomic descriptions are made for the blood fluke Paradeontacylix godfreyi n. sp. (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae) and a redescription is provided for the parasitic copepod Naricolax chrysophryenus (Cyclopoida: Bomolochidae). A qualitative risk assessment was devised for the metazoan parasite taxa identified for the sea-cage aquaculture of S. lalandi in South Australia. Risk was interpreted considering the likelihood and consequence of parasite establishment and proliferation. The monogeneans Benedenia seriolae and Zeuxapta seriolae were considered extremely likely to establish and proliferate. Benedenia seriolae also poses high potential negative consequences for cost-effective S. lalandi sea-cage farming. However, the absence of potential mitigation methods and parasite management for Paradeontacylix spp. (Digenea), Kudoa sp. and Unicapsula seriolae (Myxozoa) indicates that these species may also present high negative consequences for S. lalandi aquaculture in Australia. The nature of wild Seriola migrations is critical for an understanding of the potential impact of disease and parasite interactions between wild and farmed fish. A small-scale tagging programme of wild-caught S. lalandi and S. hippos in South Australia provided insight into the movements of these species. Recapture results indicate that large S. lalandi remain in, or return to, northern Spencer Gulf. S. lalandi also move past sea-cage farms in Fitzgerald Bay, northern Spencer Gulf, which is an important consideration in view of potential expansion of the S. lalandi sea-cage industry in Spencer Gulf. There is surprisingly little experimental assessment on parasite transmission from farmed fish to wild fish. Studies assessing parasite interactions between wild and cultured fish employ models to quantify parasite population levels of cultured, wild and escaped fish, while others carry out comparative surveys of parasite prevalence and intensity over time, in areas close to and distant from farming activity. I provide preliminary data on ectoparasite prevalence and intensity on wild S. lalandi in areas close to, distant from and where there is no sea-cage farming in southern Australia. I review methods employed in the northern hemisphere to assess sea-louse transfer between wild and farmed salmon and propose methods for assessing monogenean parasite transmission from farmed to wild S. lalandi in Australia. In summary, this thesis provides insight into the potential for parasite interactions between wild and farmed S. lalandi. I document the parasite assemblage of wild and farmed S. lalandi and wild S. hippos and provide baseline data on ‘natural’ parasite prevalence and intensity. I provide a taxonomic description of a new species of blood fluke. I indicate the likelihood of parasite transfer from wild fish to farmed S. lalandi, and identify parasite taxa with potentially negative consequences for sea-cage aquaculture. I provide the first firm data that wild S. lalandi move past one area where kingfish are farmed in sea-cages in South Australia. Finally, I propose procedures to better understand the potential for monogenean parasite transmission from farmed S. lalandi to wild fish. This thesis reports new information that is important when considering and managing expansion of the S. lalandi sea-cage aquaculture industry throughout Australia. It also provides baseline data on natural parasite levels to enable ongoing monitoring of the potential impacts of the industry on wild fish populations.
Advisor: Whittington, Ian David
Ernst, Ingo
Dissertation Note: Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2007
Subject: Yellowtail Parasites South Australia. Yellowtail South Australia.
Keywords: parasites; aquaculture; taxonomy; risk assessment; Seriola; aquatic animal health
Provenance: Copyright material removed from digital thesis. See print copy in University of Adelaide Library for full text.
Appears in Collections:Research Theses

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