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Type: Thesis
Title: Effects of obesity and diet induced weight loss on cardiovascular risk factors, vascular and ventricular structure and function, prostate symptoms and sexual function in obese men.
Author: Piantadosi, Cynthia
Issue Date: 2009
School/Discipline: School of Medicine : Medicine
Abstract: Obesity is a major epidemic and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. The health problems and consequences of obesity include cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus. Each of these abnormalities directly promotes atherosclerosis. More recently, visceral obesity has been shown to be independently associated with abnormalities of both the ventricular and vascular structure and function. The mechanisms by which they occur remain incompletely defined. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) offers several advantages for evaluation of cardiac structure and function in the obese. The high accuracy and reproducibility of the technique allows for detection of very small changes in ventricular volumes, mass, ejection fraction, and cardiac output with a relatively small sample size, as compared with echocardiography. In this thesis we investigated whether cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging can better characterize possible cardiac abnormalities associated with obesity, in the absence of other confounding comorbidities. Obesity is associated with myocardial and vascular function, the extent of reversibility of these abnormalities with rapid acute weight loss remains uncertain. Therefore the first aim of the study was to (i) determine the relationship between obesity and left ventricular structure and function using magnetic resonance imaging, and (ii) the acute effects of rapid diet-induced weight loss on cardiac and vascular function in normal obese and obese diabetic men. Erectile dysfunction is related to cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity by an impairment of endothelial function. Therefore, symptoms of erectile dysfunction are probably to precede cardiovascular disease and events. The second aim of this study was to (i) determine the relationship between obesity and erectile function (EF), sexual desire (SD), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and quality of life (QOL) measures in obese males, and (ii) determine the effects of rapid diet-induced weight loss on EF, SD, LUTS and QOL measures in normal obese and obese diabetic men. In this group of men, obesity was associated with mild/moderate erectile dysfunction, and significant LUTS, which together with sexual desire improved following rapid diet induced weight loss, but was not directly related to the amount of weight loss or changes in measured metabolic state. Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) covers 80% of the heart and constitutes 20% of its weight. PAT mass is related to the amount of abdominal fat and the risk of coronary atherosclerosis. Epicardial fat mass may be a sensitive indicator of cardiovascular risk. The third aim of this study was to (i) determine the relationship between obesity and PAT volume and (ii) effectively evaluate the impact of caloric restriction and associated weight reduction on epicardical fat volume via cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). This is the first study to show a reduction in PAT volume is associated with caloric restriction.
Advisor: Wittert, Gary Allen
Worthley, Stephen Grant
Dissertation Note: Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Adelaide, School of Medicine, 2009
Subject: Men Health and hygiene.
Obesity in men.
Cardiovascular system Diseases.
Keywords: obesity; ventricular function; Endothelial function; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; sexual function
Provenance: Copyright material removed from digital thesis. See print copy in University of Adelaide Library for full text.
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