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Type: Thesis
Title: Investigating bacterial biofilms in chronic Rhinosinusitis : an in vitro study, in vivo animal study and a examination of biofilms in human CRS.
Author: Kien, Ha Rach
Issue Date: 2009
School/Discipline: School of Medicine : Surgery
Abstract: Introduction Bacterial biofilms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS). This thesis consists of a number of separate studies. The results of each study were designed to help provide an evolution of knowledge that could be applied to our subsequent investigations on the topic of bacterial biofilms and chronic rhinosinusitis. In vitro studies were utilized to document the capacity of CRS bacteria to form biofilms as well as to investigate the efficacy of various antimicrobials at high concentrations. Additionally, an in vivo sheep model was developed to examine different biofilm detection techniques. Finally, a study of CRS patients was conducted to investigate the incidence of biofilm related sinus disease. Methods Our in vitro studies used 96 well crystal violet microtiter plate assays to determine the biofilm growth characteristics of S.aureus isolated from patients with CRS. Established biofilms were then subjected various antimicrobial agents, and the degree of biofilm reduction calculated to examine their potential for sinus biofilm treatment. A sheep sinusitis model involved performing endoscopic sinus surgery, occlusion of frontal sinus ostia and the introduction of bacteria. Mucosal specimens were subsequently examined for the presence of bacterial biofilms using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). CSLM was also used in a prospective study to document the presence bacterial biofilms on the mucosa of patients with CRS compared to controls. Results The findings of in vitro experiments revealed that not all isolates were capable of forming biofilms. Of the antibiotics tested, only Mupirocin was capable of reducing biofilm mass by 90% in all isolates. The animal model showed considerable variation in biofilm detection rates. The CSLM biofilm detection rate was 100% in obstructed sinuses with bacteria introduced, whereas TEM detected only 66%. Both these objective measures failed to identify biofilms in control groups. SEM found biofilms in all experimental groups including controls. CSLM analysis of CRS patients found Bacterial biofilms in 44% and no biofilms in controls. Conclusion The demonstration of biofilms in the sheep model for sinusitis and biofilms on the mucosal specimens of patients with CRS, and the ability of bacteria in CRS to form biofilms in vitro, further supports the hypothesis that biofilms play a role in the pathogenesis of CRS. CSLM is the modality of choice in documenting the presence of bacterial biofilms on sinus mucosal surfaces due to the inherent flaws of sampling error and subjectivity of TEM and SEM. Finally, CRS is a multi-factorial disease, topical Mupirocin via nasal irrigation may be a therapeutic option in patients with likely S.aureus biofilms.
Advisor: Wormald, Peter-John
Psaltis, Alkisviadis
Tan, Lor-Wai
Dissertation Note: Thesis (M.S.) - University of Adelaide, School of Medicine, 2009
Subject: sinusitis
Keywords: chronic rhinosinusitis; biofilms; CRS; bacterial biofilms;in-vitro; in-vivo
Provenance: Copyright material removed from digital thesis. See print copy in University of Adelaide Library for full text.
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