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Type: Journal article
Title: Communication during induction of paediatric anaesthesia: an observational study
Author: Carlyle, A.
Ching, P.
Cyna, A.
Citation: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 2008; 36(2):180-184
Publisher: Australian Soc Anaesthetists
Issue Date: 2008
ISSN: 0310-057X
Statement of
A.V. Carlyle, P.C. Ching and A.M. Cyna
Abstract: We aimed to identify and categorise advanced communication skills used by experienced consultant paediatric anaesthetists to facilitate the induction of paediatric anaesthesia. The communication techniques were both verbal and non-verbal. Communications with potentially negative effects were also noted. Eighty-three inductions were observed over a three-month period. The 12 anaesthetists observed were all senior consultants at a tertiary referral paediatric centre. The mean age of patients was 6.1 years SD+/-4.8. There were 53 males (63.9%) and 30 females (36.1%). A first anaesthetic was administered to 43 patients (56%) and sedative premedication to six (8%). Inhalational inductions were observed in 59 patients (71%). The remainder received an intravenous induction. Anaesthesia was induced in the operating room on 68 occasions (82%), in the induction room on 11 (13%) and in the radiology department on 4(5%). The most common communication techniques used were: voice change in 60 (72%); distraction in 49 (59%); direct commands in 39 (47%); repetition in 34 (41%); imagery in 21 (25%) and focused attention 21 (25%). Other techniques used were seeding of ideas, utilisation, non-verbal cues, double-binds, story-telling, indirect suggestion, dissociation and reversed effect. Sabotage by parents or staff such as inadvertent negative suggestions, was observed on 14 occasions (17%). Paediatric anaesthetists utilise a wide range of communication techniques in a highly flexible manner when inducing anaesthesia in children. Many of these communications can be characterised as hypnotherapeutic. Our observations suggest that formal structured training in communication skills and further research is warranted.
Keywords: communication
induction of anaesthesia
DOI: 10.1177/0310057x0803600207
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Obstetrics and Gynaecology publications

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