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|Title:||Highly selective iNOS inhibition and sphincter of Oddi motility in the Australian possum|
|Citation:||Acta Physiologica (Print Edition), 2004; 181(3):321-331|
|Publisher:||Blackwell Publishing Ltd|
|P. Sandstrom, C. M. Woods, M. Brooke-Smith, G. T. P. Saccone, J. Toouli and J. Svanvik|
|Abstract:||<h4>Aim</h4>Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) plays a major role in acute pancreatitis. Selective inhibitors of iNOS are being developed as therapeutic agents. Sphincter of Oddi (SO) dysfunction may cause pancreatitis and nitric oxide is necessary for SO relaxation. A new highly selective iNOS inhibitor, AR-C102222AA (AR-C), is evaluated together with the established iNOS inhibitor, L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL), and the selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) blocker S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline (SMTC).<h4>Methods</h4>In anaesthetized Australian Brush-tailed possums, the effect of topical, i.v. or i.a. administration of these drugs was evaluated on spontaneous SO motility, blood pressure (BP) and pancreatic vascular perfusion. SO motility was recorded by manometry and pancreatic vascular perfusion by laser Doppler fluxmetry. Also, the effect of SMTC and AR-C on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced non-cholinergic non-adrenergic (NANC) SO relaxation in vitro was evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>Infusion of AR-C (0.1-30 micromol kg(-1)) increased SO contraction frequency (P = 0.026) only at the two highest doses. L-NIL infusion (0.15 to 14.7 micromol kg(-1)) also increased SO contraction frequency at 8.8 micromol kg(-1) (P < 0.05) and reduced SO contraction amplitude at the two highest doses (P < 0.05). SMTC injections (0.5 nmol-2.4 micromol) produced a dose-dependent increase in SO contraction frequency (P = 0.009), but no effect was seen on the other parameters. In vitro SMTC (40-400 microm) inhibited EFS-induced NANC relaxation in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.0005). In contrast AR-C (10-500 microm) had no effect on EFS-induced NANC relaxation (P > 0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>At low doses, AR-C does not effect SO motility or EFS-induced NO mediated relaxation. However, high doses of AR-C and L-NIL in vivo influenced SO motility by inhibiting nNOS activity and these effects need be considered in relation to therapeutic doses of this agent.|
|Keywords:||Sphincter of Oddi; Pancreas; Animals; Opossums; Nitric Oxide; Quinazolines; Lysine; Enzyme Inhibitors; Culture Techniques; Blood Pressure; Regional Blood Flow; Gastrointestinal Motility; Muscle Contraction; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Nitric Oxide Synthase; Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II|
|Description:||The definitive version may be found at www.wiley.com|
|Appears in Collections:||Surgery publications|
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