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Type: Journal article
Title: Quantification of Several 4-Alkyl Substituted gamma-Lactones in Australian Wines
Author: Cooke, R.
Capone, D.
van Leeuwen, K.
Elsey, G.
Sefton, M.
Citation: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2009; 57(2):348-352
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Issue Date: 2009
ISSN: 0021-8561
Statement of
Rachel C. Cooke, Dimitra L. Capone, Katryna A. van Leeuwen, Gordon M. Elsey and Mark A. Sefton
Abstract: Stable isotope dilution assays have been developed for gamma-octalactone (1), gamma-nonalactone (2), gamma-decalactone (3) and gamma-dodecalactone (4) in both white and red wines for the first time. (2)H(7)-analogues of each lactone were prepared for use as internal standards via a strategy employing ring-opening, esterification and oxidation of the respective starting lactones. The methods were shown to be highly accurate and reproducible (R(2) > or = 0.999; SD < or = 1%). A large selection of Australian wines (n = 178) were analyzed for the presence of lactones 1-4. Fifty-eight white wines covering the varieties Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon and Viognier, as well as Botrytis style wines, were analyzed and showed broadly that gamma-octalactone (1) was the most common lactone, being observed above its limit of detection in 28 of the wines, followed by gamma-nonalactone (2) in 23 wines. The Botrytis style white wines had the highest concentrations of 1 and 2 (maximum concentrations 8.5 and 59 microg/L respectively). A total of 120 red wines covering the varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Durif, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Shiraz were also studied and showed gamma-octalactone (1) and gamma-nonalactone (2) to be the most common lactones present, in 56 and 57 of the wines, respectively. gamma-Decalactone (3) was observed in only a small number (13) of red wine samples and not at all in the white varieties. gamma-Dodecalactone (4) was absent from all 178 samples studied. The highest concentrations of lactones 1, 2 and 3 in the red wines were 4.2, 39.7 and 4.0 microg/L respectively.
Keywords: Lactones
DOI: 10.1021/jf8026974
Appears in Collections:Agriculture, Food and Wine publications
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