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|Title:||Proton MRS of the breast in the clinical setting|
|Citation:||NMR in Biomedicine, 2009; 22(1):54-64|
|Publisher:||John Wiley & Sons|
|Carolyn Mountford, Saadallah Ramadan, Peter Stanwell and Peter Malycha|
|Abstract:||Information for determining whether a primary breast lesion is invasive and its receptor status and grade can be obtained before surgery by performing proton MRS on a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) specimen and analyzing the MRS information by a pattern recognition method. Two-dimensional MRS, on either specimens or cells, allows the unambiguous assignment of most resonances. When correlated with the spectral regions selected by the pattern recognition method, there are strong indications for the biochemical markers responsible for prognostic information of invasive capacity and metastatic spread. Spectral assignments and biological correlations can be made using cell models. In vivo MRS can distinguish invasive from benign lesions. This pathological distinction can be made from the presence of resonances at discrete frequencies. To achieve this level of spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, there are stringent requirements when acquiring and processing the data. The challenge now is to implement two-dimensional MRS in vivo. Until this is realized, the combination of in vivo MR, for diagnosis and spatial location, and MRS, for image-guided biopsy to provide information on tumor spread, promises to provide a higher level of preoperative diagnosis than previously achieved.|
fine-needle aspiration biopsy
|Appears in Collections:||Aurora harvest|
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