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Type: Journal article
Title: Tobacco smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder: a population-based study
Author: Pasco, J.
Williams, L.
Jacka, F.
Ng, F.
Henry, M.
Nicholson, G.
Kotowicz, M.
Berk, M.
Citation: British Journal of Psychiatry, 2008; 193(4):322-326
Publisher: Royal College of Psychiatrists
Issue Date: 2008
ISSN: 0007-1250
Statement of
Julie A. Pasco, Lana J. Williams, Felice N. Jacka, Felicity Ng, Margaret J. Henry, Geoffrey C. Nicholson, and Mark A. Kotowicz
Abstract: Background: Smoking is disproportionately prevalent among people with psychiatric illness. Aims: To investigate smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder. Method: A population-based sample of women was studied using case–control and retrospective cohort study designs. Exposure to smoking was self-reported, and major depressive disorder diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV–TR (SCID–I/NP). Results: Among 165 people with major depressive disorder and 806 controls, smoking was associated with increased odds for major depressive disorder (age-adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.46, 95% CI 1.03–2.07). Compared with non-smokers, odds for major depressive disorder more than doubled for heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes/day). Among 671 women with no history of major depressive disorder at baseline, 13 of 87 smokers and 38 of 584 non-smokers developed de novo major depressive disorder during a decade of follow-up. Smoking increased major depressive disorder risk by 93% (hazard ratio (HR)=1.93, 95% CI 1.02–3.69); this was not explained by physical activity or alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal data suggests that smoking increases the risk of major depressive disorder in women.
Keywords: Humans
Risk Factors
Case-Control Studies
Retrospective Studies
Cohort Studies
Life Style
Depressive Disorder
Aged, 80 and over
Middle Aged
Young Adult
Description: © 2008 The Royal College of Psychiatrists
DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.046706
Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest
Psychiatry publications

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