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|Title:||Replication asynchrony and differential condensation of X chromosomes in female platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)|
Marshall Graves, J.
|Citation:||Reproduction Fertility and Development, 2009; 21(8):952-963|
|Publisher:||C S I R O Publishing|
|Kristen K. K. Ho, Janine E. Deakin, Megan L. Wright, Jennifer A. Marshall Graves and Frank Grützner|
|Abstract:||A common theme in the evolution of sex chromosomes is the massive loss of genes on the sex-specific chromosome (Y or W), leading to a gene imbalance between males (XY) and females (XX) in a male heterogametic species, or between ZZ and ZW in a female heterogametic species. Different mechanisms have evolved to compensate for this difference in dosage of X-borne genes between sexes. In therian mammals, one of the X chromosomes is inactivated, whereas bird dosage compensation is partial and gene-specific. In therian mammals, hallmarks of the inactive X are monoallelic gene expression, late DNA replication and chromatin condensation. Platypuses have five pairs of X chromosomes in females and five X and five Y chromosomes in males. Gene expression analysis suggests a more bird-like partial and gene-specific dosage compensation mechanism. We investigated replication timing and chromosome condensation of three of the five X chromosomes in female platypus. Our data suggest asynchronous replication of X-specific regions on X₁, X₃ and X₅ but show significantly different condensation between homologues for X₃ only, and not for X₁ or X₅. We discuss these results in relation to recent gene expression analysis of X-linked genes, which together give us insights into possible mechanisms of dosage compensation in platypus.|
|Keywords:||chromosome condensation; dosage compensation; gene expression; X chromosome inactivation.|
|Description:||© CSIRO 2009|
|Appears in Collections:||Molecular and Biomedical Science publications|
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