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|Title:||Expression of the water channel protein, aquaporin-4, in mouse brains exposed to mobile telephone radiofrequency fields|
|Citation:||Pathology, 2009; 41(5):473-475|
|Publisher:||Taylor & Francis|
|John W. Finnie, Peter C. Blumbergs, Zhao Cai and Jim Manavis|
|Abstract:||Aim: To determine whether exposure to mobile telephone radiofrequency (RF) fields, either acutely or long-term, produces up-regulation of the water channel protein, aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Methods: Using a purpose-designed exposure system at 900 MHz, mice were given a single, far-field whole body exposure at a specific absorption rate of 4 W/kg for 60 minutes or a similar exposure on 5 successive days/ week for 104 weeks. Control mice were sham-exposed or freely mobile in a cage to control for any stress caused by restraint in the exposure module. A positive control group was given a clostridial toxin known to cause microvascular endothelial injury, severe vasogenic oedema and upregulation of AQP-4. Brains were perfusion fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, coronal sections cut from six levels, and immunostained for the principal water channel protein in brain, AQP-4. Results: There was no increase in AQP-4 expression in brains exposed to mobile phone microwaves compared to control (sham exposed and freely moving caged mice) brains after short or protracted exposure, while AQP-4 was substantially upregulated in the brains of mice given the clostridial toxin. Conclusion: Brains exposed to mobile telephone RF fields for a short (60 minutes) or long (2 years) duration did not show any immunohistochemically detectable up-regulation of the water channel protein, AQP-4, suggesting that there was no significant increase in blood-brain barrier permeability.|
|Keywords:||Mobile telephony; brain; aquaporin water channel protein|
|Appears in Collections:||Pathology publications|
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