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|Title:||Sensory and Motor Innervation of the Crural Diaphragm by the Vagus Nerves|
|Citation:||Gastroenterology, 2010; 138(3):1091-1106|
|Publisher:||W B Saunders Co|
|Richard L. Young, Amanda J. Pagelow, Nicole J. Cooperlow, Claudine L. Frisby and L. Ashley Blackshaw|
|Abstract:||<h4>Background & aims</h4>During gastroesophageal reflux, transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and crural diaphragm (CD) inhibition occur concomitantly. Modifying vagus nerve control of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation is a major focus of development of therapeutics for gastroesophageal reflux disease, but neural mechanisms that coordinate the CD are poorly understood.<h4>Methods</h4>Nerve tracing and immunolabeling were used to assess innervation of the diaphragm and lower esophageal sphincter in ferrets. Mechanosensory responses of vagal afferents in the CD and electromyography responses of the CD were recorded in novel in vitro preparations and in vivo.<h4>Results</h4>Retrograde tracing revealed a unique population of vagal CD sensory neurons in nodose ganglia and CD motor neurons in brainstem vagal nuclei. Anterograde tracing revealed specialized vagal endings in the CD and phrenoesophageal ligament-sites of vagal afferent mechanosensitivity recorded in vitro. Spontaneous electromyography activity persisted in the CD following bilateral phrenicotomy in vivo, while vagus nerve stimulation evoked electromyography responses in the CD in vitro and in vivo.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We conclude that vagal sensory and motor neurons functionally innervate the CD and phrenoesophageal ligament. CD vagal afferents show mechanosensitivity to distortion of the gastroesophageal junction, while vagal motor neurons innervate both CD and distal esophagus and may represent a common substrate for motor control of the reflux barrier.|
|Keywords:||Crural Diaphragm; Vagus Nerve; Retrograde Tracing; Anterograde Tracing; Electrophysiology|
|Rights:||Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute Published by Elsevier Inc.|
|Appears in Collections:||Molecular and Biomedical Science publications|
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